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【弥生期の死と墳墓 日本列島37,000年史-36】





きのう見たように鉄という産業革命が弥生の世を決定づけたものだろう。
中国大陸で開発された製鉄技術が最初はその製品・利器が直接導入され
その後、製鉄原料が輸入されて現場で「鍛冶」加工された。
集団労働が基本である水田農耕においてはこの鉄器管理が最重要で
そこに支配という権力構造の高度化の根源的意味があった。
吉野ヶ里遺跡にその痕跡があるとされ、はるか後年の飛鳥宮でも
鍛冶工房跡が王権中枢の数百メートル範囲で発掘されている。
このことがその後の「日本史」の基軸的な動因と思える。

さてそういう社会の中で、先人たちの多くの死が積層していった。
弥生社会は紀元前10世紀ころから成立し近畿で「前方後円墳」が成立するまで
およそ1200年間、各地でさまざまな墓が作られた。
ひとの死はその時代相を表しひとびとの祈りの本質もうかがえる。
古い時代順に、全国の発掘例を上げてみたい。
●支石墓<紀元前8-紀元前4世紀〜福岡県志登支石墓群>
朝鮮半島南部系で1m四方の卓状の平石をテーブル脚状の石で支える墓。
福岡西部、佐賀、長崎、熊本に限って分布する。
●渡来人の墓<紀元前6−紀元前1世紀〜山口県土井ヶ浜遺跡>
砂丘上に営まれた集団墓地。縄文人より高身長の人びとが葬られていたことから
朝鮮半島から渡ってきた「渡来人」説の根拠となった。
●方形周溝墓<紀元前3世紀〜大阪府瓜生堂遺跡>
朝鮮半島南部系で方形に溝を掘り内側に盛り土を1m以上遣っている珍しいカタチ。
1辺が10-20mの方形を呈している。
●大型墳丘墓<紀元前3世紀〜大阪府加美遺跡>
26×15m、高さ3mと大型で墳丘内から23基の木棺が確認された。成人14基と
小児9基が見つかり、豊かな副葬品を持っていた。
●再葬墓<紀元前3世紀〜茨城県泉坂下遺跡>
遺体を骨にしてその一部を壷などに収めた墓。縄文系で関東、福島・新潟などに
分布する。水田農耕が始まると激減する。
●方形周溝墓<紀元前2世紀〜紀元前1世紀〜神奈川県歳勝土遺跡>
隣接の大塚遺跡と80mほど離れて墓道で繋がっていた。25基ほどが
見つかっているがもともと30基ほどあったと考えられている。
●甕棺墓<紀元前1世紀〜福岡県立岩遺跡>
棺専用に作られた高さ70cm以上の壷や甕で福岡、佐賀、長崎、熊本、大分、
鹿児島の一部に分布する。紀元前6世紀から紀元後3世紀まで作られる。

列島社会というものが在来の縄文系の人びとと
水田稲作とともに「東アジアのフロンティア」として移住してきた人びとの
混淆というカタチで社会形成されてきた様子がしずかに伝わってくる。
やがて墓制は古墳時代から仏教の導入という局面に進んでいく。
古墳とは権力者の象徴でありその後の寺院建築と対比されるもの。
そうするとこれらの墳墓のカタチとは建築的志向の基層ともいえる。
先人の思いを知ることは自分を知ることと同義なのだろう。合掌。

English version⬇

Death and Tombs in the Yayoi Period: The 37,000-Year History of the Japanese Archipelago – 36
The tombs are silent time capsules of the state of society. The tombs are a quiet time capsule of the state of society, from which the way of life of our ancestors and their way of living naturally emerge. The Tomb of the Dead

As we saw yesterday, the industrial revolution in the form of iron was probably the defining factor in the Yayoi period.
Iron manufacturing technology developed in mainland China was first introduced directly into Japan.
Later, ironmaking materials were imported and “forged” on site.
In rice paddy farming, which is based on collective labor, the management of iron tools was of paramount importance.
This was the fundamental meaning of the advancement of the power structure of domination.
It is said that there are traces of the ironworking at the Yoshinogari site, and even at the Asuka Palace, which was built much later, traces of ironworking have been found.
The remains of a blacksmith workshop have been excavated within a few hundred meters of the center of royal authority.
This seems to have been the key factor in the subsequent “history of Japan.

In such a society, the deaths of many of its predecessors were layered on top of each other.
The Yayoi society was established around the 10th century B.C., and for about 1,200 years, various graves were excavated in various locations until the “front-recessed circular mounds” were established in the Kinki region.
Various tombs were built in various places for approximately 1,200 years until the “front-recessed circle burial mounds” were established in the Kinki region.
The death of a person represents the phase of the time, and the nature of people’s prayers can also be seen.
The following are examples of tombs excavated throughout Japan in chronological order.
Stone Tomb <8th century B.C.-4th century B.C.E.> Shido Stone Tomb Group, Fukuoka Prefecture
A 1m square table-shaped flat stone supported by table-leg stones.
They are found only in western Fukuoka, Saga, Nagasaki, and Kumamoto.
Tomb of a visitor to Japan <6th century B.C.-1st century B.C.E.> Doigahama site, Yamaguchi Prefecture
A mass grave constructed on a sand dune. The fact that people taller than the Jomon were buried here suggests that they were “migrant” people from the Korean Peninsula.
The fact that people taller than the Jomon people were buried in these graves has become the basis for the theory that these people came to Japan from the Korean Peninsula.
Square ditch tombs (3rd century B.C.E. – Uryudo site, Osaka Prefecture)
This is an unusual shape of a tomb from the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, in which a square trench was dug and a fill of more than 1 m was placed inside the trench.
It is a square with one side measuring 10 to 20 meters.
Large mound tomb <3rd century B.C.E. - Kami Site, Osaka Prefecture The mound is large, measuring 26 x 15 m and 3 m high. 23 wooden coffins were found in the mound. Fourteen adult coffins and nine child coffins were found. The coffins were found to be rich in burial accessories. Reburial Tomb <3rd century BC - Izumisakashita site, Ibaraki Prefecture>.
A grave in which the remains of a deceased person were reduced to bones and a portion of the bones were placed in an urn or other container. Jomon type, distributed in the Kanto region, Fukushima, Niigata, and other areas.
The graves were distributed in the Kanto region, Fukushima, Niigata, and other areas. The number of these tombs decreased drastically when rice paddy farming began.
Square ditch tombs (2nd century B.C.-1st century B.C.-Toshikatsuchi site, Kanagawa Prefecture)
About 25 graves were found, but it is thought that there were originally about 30.
It is thought that there were originally about 30 of these tombs.
Jar coffin tomb (1st century B.C. – Tateiwa site, Fukuoka Prefecture)
These are jars or pots more than 70 cm high made exclusively for coffins and are found in Fukuoka, Saga, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, Oita, and Kagoshima.
They are distributed in Fukuoka, Saga, Nagasaki, Kumamoto, Oita, and Kagoshima. They were made from the 6th century BC to the 3rd century AD.

The archipelago’s society is a combination of the native Jomon people
and those who migrated to the archipelago as the “frontier of East Asia” with rice cultivation in the paddy fields.
The mixture of native Jomon people and those who migrated to the archipelago as “the frontier of East Asia” along with paddy rice cultivation is quietly conveyed.
Eventually, the tomb system progressed from the Kofun period to the introduction of Buddhism.
Kofun tombs are symbols of power and are contrasted with the architecture of temples that followed.
In this sense, the shape of these tombs can be seen as an expression of architectural orientation.
Knowing the thoughts of our ancestors is probably synonymous with knowing ourselves. I bow my head in prayer.

【農の中核素材=鉄は国家なりか? 日本列島37,000年史-35】




以下は、島根県雲南市の「海を渡ってきた「鉄」の話」より要旨。
〜世界で初めて鉄が作られたのは3800~4000年前の西アジアが有力。
一方中国で鉄が作られたのは3400年前ごろ。日本はまだ縄文時代の後期後半。
中国でも鉄の始まりは宇宙からの落下隕鉄(鉄隕石)を利用したという。
このころ中国ではすでに鋳銅技術が開発され金属器といえば青銅器が主流。
鉄はとても貴重なものだった。やがて中国では世界に先がけて銑鉄が作られ
この銑鉄を鋳型に流し込んだ鋳造鉄器とよばれる鋳物鉄製品が作られた。
この銑鉄は鉄中に炭素を多く含むので非常に硬い半面、衝撃には脆い性質があり、
刃物などの利器には適さなかった。しかし鉄中の炭素を減じる技術が開発され、
粘りのある鉄が鋳造鉄器刃部に利用されるようになった。
日本の弥生時代中期ごろには鉄製の鉄斧破片などが北部九州日本に運ばれ、
再利用された。石道具で山野開拓した弥生人は鉄器の切れ味の威力に驚いた。
持ち込まれた鉄製品は超貴重品だった。
やがて中国製鉄技術は朝鮮半島の北部に伝播。そして3世紀ごろ、
朝鮮半島南部で生産の鉄が日本に輸入。弥生時代後期後半から古墳時代初め。〜

まさに現代世界にも共通する産業技術革命そのものですね。
青銅の技術はすでに伝わって、銅鐸などが威信材として導入されていたけれど、
鉄の驚くべき性能ぶりが一気に世を変えていったことが想像できる。
弥生の社会にこの鉄器が導入され土地開発農具として最高の存在になった。
開墾器具にも木を切る斧の先端素材としても、それまでの効率・仕上がりを
はるかに凌駕し労働の時間短縮・精度向上を実現したことは想像に難くない。
たぶんそれは同時に戦争の「武器」としても活用されていったに相違ない。
戦いをすれば、鉄を持つ集団は圧倒的な強さを発揮できたのだろう。
争うように鉄の獲得戦が行われることも自然な成り行き。
ほぼ信仰にも似た鉄器への希求が社会の基底で盛り上がっていった。
日本国家生成の時期、朝鮮半島国家群との強い国際関係が基本で
揺籃期の日本権力機構で決定的要素だったのには、
この鉄器の生産と導入が死活的だった事情を表しているのだろう。
やがて白村江海戦という東アジア世界大戦に突っ込んでいく動機は
このことが社会経済の存亡に直結したからなのだろう。

白村江敗戦のあとでようやく鉄は国内生産が可能になっていくことで
日本列島社会は東アジア世界との強い関係性からやや脱することができる。
経済的自立が国の安定の決定的要因なのは、いつの時代も不変。
弥生から国家形成の時期にかけて、日本社会ではこういう切羽詰まった事情が
鉄を巡って存在していただろうことが可視化されてきている。

English version⬇

Iron, the Core Material of Agriculture: A Nation? The 37,000-Year History of the Japanese Archipelago – 35
Why did Japan in the Tenchi period fight the reckless Battle of Hakuchon River? The situation of acquiring “iron” resources in a desperate situation. …

The following is an abstract from “The Story of ‘Iron’ Across the Sea” in Unnan, Shimane Prefecture.
〜The first time iron was made in the world is believed to have been in Western Asia between 3,800 and 4,000 years ago.
In China, on the other hand, iron was first produced around 3,400 years ago. Japan is still in the latter half of the Jomon Period.
In China, too, iron was first made from meteoric iron (iron meteorites) that fell from outer space.
At this time, bronze casting technology had already been developed in China, and bronze vessels were the main type of metalware.
Iron was very precious. Eventually, China became the first country in the world to produce pig iron, and this pig iron was then used in casting molds.
This pig iron was poured into molds to produce cast ironware.
Pig iron is extremely hard due to the high carbon content in the iron, but it is also brittle upon impact.
It was not suitable for use as a cutting tool or other useful tool. However, in China, a technology was developed to reduce the amount of carbon in the iron.
The technique to reduce the amount of carbon in iron was developed in China, and iron with a high tenacity came to be used for cast-iron blades.
In the mid-Yayoi period in Japan, iron axe shards made of iron were transported to northern Kyushu Japan and reused.
They were reused. The Yayoi, who cultivated the mountains and fields with stone tools, were amazed at the power of the sharpness of iron tools.
The iron products they brought with them were highly prized.
Eventually, Chinese iron manufacturing technology spread to the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. Around the 3rd century, iron products produced in the southern part of the Korean peninsula were introduced to the Yayoi people.
Iron produced in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula was imported to Japan. Late Yayoi Period to early Kofun Period. 〜From the late Yayoi Period to the early Kofun Period

It is the very industrial and technological revolution that is also common in the modern world.
Bronze technology had already been introduced, and bronze bells and other objects had been introduced as prestige materials, but the amazing performance of iron was changing the world at a stroke.
We can imagine that the amazing performance of iron changed the world at once.
The introduction of iron tools into Yayoi society made them the best tools for land development and agriculture.
Whether used as cultivation tools or as the cutting edge of an axe, iron tools far surpassed the efficiency and workmanship of previous tools.
It is not difficult to imagine that the iron tools were far more efficient and effective than the conventional tools, shortening labor time and improving accuracy.
It was probably also used as a “weapon” in warfare.
In a battle, a group with iron would have been overwhelmingly strong.
It was natural that they would fight to acquire iron.
The desire for iron tools, which was almost like a religious belief, rose at the base of society.
During the period of the birth of the Japanese state, strong international relations with the Korean Peninsula states were fundamental.
The production and introduction of ironware was a decisive factor in Japan’s power structure in its infancy.
The production and introduction of ironware was a critical factor in the development of Japan’s power structure.
The motivation for the Japanese to eventually plunge into the Battle of Hakuchonjiang, a world war in East Asia, was directly related to this.
The reason why the Japanese were eventually driven into the East Asian World War, the Battle of the White River, may be because of the direct link between this war and the survival of the social economy.

After the defeat at the Hakuchon River, domestic production of iron finally became possible, and the Japanese archipelago’s society was able to survive in the East Asian world.
Japanese society could somewhat break away from its strong relationship with the East Asian world.
Economic independence has always been a decisive factor for national stability.
From the Yayoi period to the period of state formation, this kind of impasse would have existed in Japanese society
It is becoming visible that this kind of desperate situation would have existed around iron in Japanese society from the Yayoi period to the period of state formation.

【権力と戦争が国家の起源 日本列島37,000年史-34】




弥生の水田稲作はそれまでの縄文の世の人口密度を一変させた。
食糧生産の究極的な「効率化」が計られたのがアジアでは水田稲作であり、
その最適な環境のひとつとして日本列島があった。
土地利用の観点からすると、人間一人あたりの必要カロリー取得可能面積において
弥生:縄文では一説では1:400というほどの違いがあるとされるほど
農耕は人類生存の形態を大きく変えたと言えるのでしょう。
それまではたぶん「土地」という観念が人類にはなかったのが、
その後の「一所懸命」的思想がひろく人間のこころを支配していく。

もちろん狩猟採集という経済でも効率化バイアスは働き、
武器の高度化という意味では相互関係が働いたと思えるけれど、
こと農耕という経済社会ではこの「土地」の有用性・支配権を巡って
戦争という概念がごく自然発生的に巻き起こっていった。
ことは経済の事柄であるのでこの変化は否応なく、としか言いようがない。
マルクスエンゲルスの唱えた「原始共産制社会」というのは疑問だと思うし、
むしろ農耕の人類社会での一般化からの必然として権力の発生は理解できる。
軍事力というものが発生するのは自然。
人類社会はこの争闘の根本原因に対し制御方法を考えて行くことになるけれど、
当面する対手が存在すれば、それとの関係性に於いて軍事力を持たなければ
対等の交渉もできないことは子どもでも理解できる原理。
基本構造の経済における利用資源として鉄器の技術発展があって
それはそのまま軍事転用可能な武器生産とも連動していった。
こういうこと対応の社会的機能として「ムラとクニ」概念が生まれ、
それら同士での緊張関係、相互関係が、より巨大な地域統合を促すことも自然。
近隣関係でもめ事が起こったときにそれを平和的に解決するのに
より大きな「幻想」的共同体の調停力は必要でもあっただろう。
人類社会発展の「加速度」機能を果たしたものがこういう経済基盤と
社会統治としての国家権力であったことは否定しようのない事実。
中国大陸では初の中央集権統一国家・秦が紀元前221年に成立した。
それとどのように対応して行くべきか、日本の弥生社会は
相当の緊張関係を孕みながら、徐々に統一的王権に向かっていった。

一方、戦争と権力が、技術と経済を大いに発展させていった。
吉野ヶ里遺跡でもごく近距離に「鍛冶」の工房が営まれていたし、
飛鳥の都でも同様の鍛冶場が王権に近接して営まれていた。
始原期の権力にとって農耕発展のために金属機器を生産し下賜する能力は不可欠。
またそういう権力の誇示として権力者的装身具として
「キラキラ」したるものは、誰の目にもわかりやすかったのだろう。

English version⬇

[Power and war are the origins of the state. 37,000-year history of the Japanese archipelago – 34]
Overwhelming power for rice paddy farming with the ability to maintain and develop the population. Further accelerated by the development of metal equipment. The economic structure created and nurtured power. …

Paddy rice cultivation in the Yayoi period transformed the population density of the Jomon period up to that time.
The ultimate “efficiency” of food production was achieved through paddy rice cultivation in Asia, and one of the best environments for this was the Japanese archipelago.
One of the best environments for this was the Japanese archipelago.
From the perspective of land use, the Yayoi: Jomon period was the most efficient in terms of the area available to obtain the necessary calories per person.
The Yayoi:Jomon ratio is said to be as large as 1:400.
Agriculture has changed the way human beings survive.
Until then, humans probably did not have the concept of “land.
The “working hard” philosophy that followed dominated the human mind.

Of course, the efficiency bias also worked in the hunter-gatherer economy.
In a hunter-gatherer economy, of course, there is an efficiency bias, and it seems to have been interrelated in the sense of the sophistication of weaponry.
In an agrarian economy, however, the concept of war over the usefulness and control of the land is a very natural outgrowth of the concept of war.
The concept of war emerged quite spontaneously in an agrarian economic society.
Since this is an economic matter, this change can only be described as inevitable.
I think that the “primitive communist society” advocated by Marx Engels is questionable and
Rather, the emergence of power as an inevitable consequence of the generalization of agriculture in human society is understandable.
The emergence of military power is natural.
Human societies will find ways to control the root causes of this struggle, but if there is an immediate countermeasure, it will be a military force.
If there is an immediate opponent, it is impossible to negotiate with it on an equal footing without military power in relation to it.
Even a child can understand this principle.
The technological development of ironware as a resource to be utilized in the economy of the basic structure
This was directly linked to the production of weapons that could be used for military purposes.
The concept of “mura and kuni” was born as a social function to cope with such a situation.
Tensions and interrelationships among them naturally promote greater regional integration.
When a dispute arises in a neighborhood, it can be resolved peacefully by a larger “illusory” community.
The mediating power of a larger “illusory” community would have been necessary to peacefully resolve disputes in neighboring relations.
The “acceleration” function of human social development was fulfilled by this kind of economic infrastructure and state power as social governance.
It is an undeniable fact that the “accelerating” function of human social development was this kind of economic infrastructure and state power as social governance.
In mainland China, the first centralized unified state, Qin Dynasty, was established in 221 BC.
How should we deal with this, and how should Japan’s Yayoi society deal with it?
The Yayoi society in Japan gradually moved toward a unified kingship, with considerable tensions.

On the other hand, war and power led to great technological and economic development.
At the Yoshinogari site, a “forge” workshop was operated within a very short distance, and a similar forge was operated in the Asuka capital.
Similar forges were operated in the Asuka capital in close proximity to the royal authority.
The ability to produce and gift metal equipment for the development of agriculture was essential for the primitive powers.
The ability to produce and bestow metal equipment was essential for primitive power to develop agriculture, and as a demonstration of such power, “shiny” objects were used as power ornaments.
The “glittering” objects were easily recognizable to all.

【弥生ニッポン:続縄文・北海道 日本列島37,000年史-33】




さて南北も東西も3000kmの距離スパンの日本列島。
紀元前10世紀から紀元前3世紀くらいまでには弥生の稲作水田農業が
大陸に近い北部九州から関東以西地域、そして東北北部津軽平野にまで
大きく広がっていったけれど、北海道にはその波動はやってこなかった。
縄文の世では三内丸山地域など東北北部と共有する縄文遺跡群が
世界遺産登録されるほど交流が活発だったけれど、
水田稲作については津軽海峡を渡ることはなかった。
それまでは共通の社会を形成していたのがいったん分断されることになる。
北海道地域単独の気候変動の歴史的解析を期待したいけれど、
知る限りではそういう研究成果は発表されていない(ように思う)。
ただ、最近東京科学博物館での展示で知った
「日本の気候変動5000万年史」という書籍で過去8000年間の気温表を発見。
それによると縄文時代の「首都」ともいわれる三内丸山が気候の寒冷化で
滅んだ様子がわかったりする。
縄文の世は非常に温暖な気候条件下で繁栄していたものが
弥生が本格化する頃には寒冷化があって、逆風が吹いた様子もわかる。
温暖化と寒冷化は日本で波動を繰り返している。
津軽地域の水田耕作は河川の氾濫などでいったん終息するけれど、
自然環境の変化に敏感な水田農業も盛衰を繰り返してきたのだろう。

そういうなかで北海道は基本的に、我関せずで、
写真のゴマフアザラシの幼獣とおぼしき個体から
「ハンカクサイんでないの?
そんな水田農業なんてムリムリ」と言われているようです(笑)。
北海道に暮らす人びとは自然環境に従順に縄文のライフスタイルを守った。
水田稲作を行わない、海川特化の漁撈採集文化。管玉や貝製装身具などの
必要なものは特産品と引き換えの交易で本州地域の水田稲作民から
入手する関係が築かれていったとされている。
遺跡分布では道南の海岸線地域と、道央の石狩川流域地域などに集中。
漁撈が基本的食糧戦略だったのだと思います。
本州社会とは「交易」の関係で繋がっている。
弥生の時期以降、しばらく日本列島の中で別の時空間を構成していた。


国立歴史民俗博物館のジオラマ展示ではこういう続縄文の人びとが
明るく元気な造形として描かれていてありがたいなと感じていた(笑)。
しばらくの間、日本社会文化の主流とは縁遠い存在となったけれど、
縄文という本来の母性的環境のまま、北海道が暮らしてきたことに
明るいスポットを当ててくれているようで、心なごんだ(笑)。

そしてはるかな明治以降、北海道がまた日本社会に復帰したとき、
大量に移民の波動が押し寄せて、一気に弥生以降のライフスタイル革命が
もたらされ、さらに保全された自然環境が人びとを魅了している。
やはりロシアに併合されるよりはるかにシアワセだったと思う。

English version⬇

Yayoi Nippon: “Sequel to the Jomon” Hokkaido: The 37,000-Year History of the Japanese Archipelago – 33
Hokkaido, which had no connection with the Yayoi, preserved its cold climate and went its separate way until its reunion in the Meiji period. But it must have been sheer luck. …

Now, the Japanese archipelago spans a distance of 3000 km from north to south and from east to west.
From the 10th century B.C. to about the 3rd century B.C., Yayoi rice paddy agriculture
spread from northern Kyushu, near the continent, to the Kanto region and westward to the Tsugaru Plain in the northern Tohoku region.
However, this wave never reached Hokkaido.
In the Jomon period, the Jomon sites shared with the northern Tohoku region, such as the Sannai-Maruyama area, were so intertwined that they were inscribed on the World Heritage List.
The Jomon period was so active that the Sannai-Maruyama area and other Jomon sites shared with the northern Tohoku region were registered as a World Heritage site.
However, paddy rice cultivation did not cross the Tsugaru Straits.
The previously common society was divided.
I would like to see a historical analysis of climate change in the Hokkaido region alone, but as far as I know, no such research has been published.
However, as far as I know, no such research results have been published.
However, I recently came across an exhibit at the Tokyo Science Museum.
In the book “50 Million Years of Climate Change in Japan,” I found a table of temperatures over the past 8,000 years.
According to the chart, Sannai-Maruyama, which is said to have been the “capital” of the Jomon period, was destroyed due to the cold climate.
The Jomon period was a time of extremely warm weather.
The Jomon period thrived under very warm climatic conditions, but by the time the Yayoi period began in earnest, the climate had become too cold.
By the time the Yayoi period began in earnest, the climate had turned cold and there were headwinds.
Warming and cooling have been repeated in waves in Japan.
Paddy farming in the Tsugaru region came to an end due to river flooding.
Paddy farming, which is sensitive to changes in the natural environment, has also experienced repeated rises and falls.

Hokkaido, on the other hand, has basically taken a hands-off approach.
A young sargassum seal in the photo, which appeared to be a juvenile, said to me
I was told, “Isn’t it too hard to farm rice paddies?
It is impossible to farm rice paddies like that” (laughs).
The people living in Hokkaido followed the Jomon lifestyle in obedience to the natural environment.
They did not cultivate rice in paddy fields, but specialized in sea-river fishing and gathering culture. Tube balls, shell ornaments, and other
Necessities such as tube beads and shell ornaments were obtained from paddy rice farmers in the Honshu region through trade in exchange for local products.
The distribution of sites shows that the people in the southern part of the province had a relationship with rice farmers in the rice paddies.
The distribution of sites is concentrated in the coastal areas of southern Hokkaido and the Ishikari River basin in central Hokkaido.
Fishing was the basic food strategy.
They are connected to Honshu society through “trading” relations.
After the Yayoi period, they constituted a separate time-space within the Japanese archipelago for a while.

In the diorama exhibit at the National Museum of Japanese History, I felt grateful that these Sequential Jomon people
I felt grateful that the diorama exhibit at the National Museum of Japanese History depicted these Sequelae Jomon people as bright and energetic figures (laugh).
Although they have been out of the mainstream of Japanese society and culture for a while, they have remained in the original maternal environment of the Jomon, and have lived in Hokkaido.
Hokkaido has been living in the original maternal environment of the Jomon
It was heartwarming to see that he was shining a bright spotlight on the fact that Hokkaido has been living in its original maternal environment of the Jomon (laugh).

And when Hokkaido rejoined Japanese society long after the Meiji period
When Hokkaido rejoined Japanese society after the long Meiji period, waves of immigrants arrived in large numbers, bringing with them a revolution in lifestyles that began in the Yayoi period and lasted for many years.
The natural environment that has been preserved has attracted people.
I think it was much better than the annexation by Russia.

【美の探究・縄文と弥生女性 日本列島37,000年史-32】




さて本日は人類普遍のテーマ、女性の美への探究心であります。
アダムとイブという例えはキリスト教世界的だけれど、
アマテラスが女性神である日本列島でも、普遍的に男女の恋愛史はあり、
さまざまな神話説話の基本になっていることは自明。
で、具体的に衣装として記録が残っていくのは日本でも
歴史年代以降になる。しかし、女性の美への欲求はそれ以前も当たり前。
歴博での展示でこのテーマコーナーがあった。
堅苦しい歴史館展示の枠を超えて、非常にわかりやすくて好感。

縄文女性は岩手県蝦島貝塚出土の成人女性の頭骨を復顔。シカの革を
黒く燻した生地に、ウルシとタカラガイによる装飾をつけた上着を羽織り、
ヒスイ製の玉で作ったネックレスを付け皮の靴を履く。シャーマンの表現。
<縄文・弥生とも衣装復元はスタイリストで古代衣服研究者の大橋まり氏>
頭骨から肌を復元してFRP素材で製作し、まゆ毛と髪をのせて完成。
髪には縦櫛、耳には飾り物。ネックレスは糸魚川産のヒスイ製。
一方、弥生女性は、山口県土井ヶ浜遺跡出土の成人女性の頭骨を復顔。
アカネ染めの絹の上着を羽織り、ヒスイ製の勾玉とガラス製の管玉製のネックレス。
貝の分泌液で紫に染めた鉢巻。帯はクチナシの黄色で染めた。
靴は木製。魏志倭人伝中の大人層の未婚女性を想定再現。

・・・たいへんわかりやすい(笑)。
っていうか、現代でもこういう衣装であれば着てもらいたい(笑)。
こころなしか縄文女性の方がやや小柄でまるっとした印象であるのに対して
弥生女性はスラッとした印象を与えられる。
このあたりは考古発見での統計が基礎になっているのでしょう。
どの素材にも「着色」という志向性が重要な要素なのでしょう。
やはり視覚的に目を驚かすというのが基本動機。
自然と触れ合いこうした衣装への利用ということを考えながら
染色材料を注意深く探究したのでしょう。
アカネとは、アカネ科アカネ属のつる性多年生植物。根は茜色をしており、
草木染めの原料になるとされるけれど、
そういう植物への知恵というのは、やはり美への欲求が誘った。
貝類を利用するとか、ヒスイを探し出すとか、
あらゆる資源開発・発展においてこうした欲求が背景動因であったのでしょう。
食糧として口に入れながら、同時に「キラキラ」したるものに
目を輝かせていたという光景が彷彿としてくる。
食糧の確保手段が文化の基本だけれど、同時にこういう欲求も
人間社会を大きく動かしてきたこともあきらかでしょうね。
美への探究心というものが相当大きな人類進化の要因だったことは間違いない。
歴史の見方で、こういう角度も探究してくれて興味がさらに深まります。

English version⬇

The Jomon and Yayoi Women: The 37,000-Year History of the Japanese Archipelago – 32
Although food security is the basic motivation, the pursuit of beauty has also been a major factor in human development. The Jomon period

Today’s topic is the universal theme of humanity: the quest for female beauty.
The analogy of Adam and Eve is very Christian.
But even in the Japanese archipelago, where Amaterasu is a female deity, there is a universal history of love between men and women, and it is the basis of various mythological tales.
It is obvious that it is the basis of various myths and legends.
But it was not until the historical period in Japan that specific costumes were recorded.
historical period or later in Japan. However, women’s desire for beauty was common even before that time.
There was a section on this theme in the exhibition at Rekihaku.
I liked it because it was very easy to understand and beyond the confines of a rigid history museum exhibit.

The Jomon woman is a facial reconstruction of an adult female skull excavated from the Ezushima shell mound in Iwate Prefecture. Deerskin.
She wears a jacket made of black smoked deerskin and decorated with poison ivy and takaragai, and a necklace made of jade beads.
She wears a necklace made of jade jade and leather shoes. This is an expression of a shaman.
<Costumes for both the Jomon and Yayoi periods were restored by stylist and ancient clothing researcher Mari Ohashi.
The skin is reconstructed from the skull and made of FRP material, and completed with eyebrows and hair.
A vertical comb was used for the hair and ornaments for the ears. The necklace is made of jade from Itoigawa.
The Yayoi female figure is a reconstruction of an adult female skull excavated at the Doigahama site in Yamaguchi Prefecture.
She wears an akane-dyed silk jacket and a necklace made of jade and glass tubular beads.
A potted headdress dyed purple with the secretion of the twice. The obi was dyed gardenia yellow.
Shoes are wooden. The figure is a reproduction of an unmarried woman in the adult age group in Wei Wei’s biography.

It is very easy to understand (laugh).
I would like them to wear this kind of costume even in the modern age (laugh).
The Jomon women are slightly smaller and more rounded, while the Yayoi women look slender and slender.
Yayoi women give the impression of being slender.
This is probably based on statistics from archaeological discoveries.
The orientation of “coloring” is probably an important element in any material.
After all, the basic motive is to visually astonish the eye.
We have carefully explored dyeing materials while considering their use in costumes that are in contact with nature.
The artist must have carefully explored dyeing materials with the idea of being in contact with nature and using them in these costumes.
Akane is a perennial vine belonging to the family Acanthaceae. Its roots are akane red in color and are used as a raw material for herb dyeing.
It is said to be used as a raw material for herb-dyeing.
The wisdom of using such plants is, of course, driven by the desire for beauty.
The use of shellfish, the search for jade, and so on.
This desire must have been the driving force behind the development and exploitation of all kinds of resources.
The sight of the sparkling things that we put in our mouths as food, while at the same time
The scene is reminiscent of the way people put food in their mouths while at the same time gazing at something “sparkling”.
The means to secure food is the basis of culture, but this kind of desire has also been a major driving force in human society.
It is also clear that this kind of desire has been a major driving force in human society.
There is no doubt that the quest for beauty has been a major factor in human evolution.
This angle is explored in the historical perspective, which deepens my interest even more.

【縄文〜弥生の表現力への親近感 日本列島37,000年史-31】




弥生と縄文って必ずしも非連続的というものではない印象を持つ。
それは弥生期の「自画像」痕跡が多数、土器に描かれたり
木版に彫り込んだり、粘土で造形されたりものを見て感じる。
また中国での日本列島記録初見とされる魏志倭人伝に「黥面」文化が書かれるが
その題材となった風習の証拠痕跡もこうして残っている。
習俗としてのこのような「文化」はやはり根強く存在したのだろう。
〜帯方郡より女王国に至る万二千余里。男子は大小と無く、皆黥面文身す。
古より以来、其の使、中国に詣(いた)るや、皆、自ら大夫と称す。
夏后少康の子、会稽に封ぜられるや、断髪文身し、以て蛟龍の害を避く。
今、倭の水人、好みて沈没して魚蛤を捕へ、文身し、亦、以て大魚水禽を厭(はら)ふ。
後、稍(やや)以て飾りと為す。諸国の文身、各(おのおの)異なり、
或は左に、或は右に、或は大に、或は小に、尊卑の差有り。
其の道里を計るに当に会稽の東冶の東に在るべし。〜(魏志倭人伝)

海人族的な風俗であるのか、犯罪者への刑罰的な意味なのか。
記紀の記述などを見ると、その後の支配者層にはその風俗はなかったようだ。
逆に言うと、列島人の基本的な感覚の中に上の写真やイラストのような
表現を許容する精神性が存在していたように思う。
弥生と縄文は文化性として併存していたので、こういう
キッチュな表現にその影響が色濃く残っていたのだろう。
こういう表現力というのはやはり「海洋民族」という素性を見せている。
環太平洋圏の北米南米、そして東南アジアの諸民族との親和性。
けっして大陸文化的な画一性には染まりにくい精神性が
日本列島人の基底的な「文化動機」に近しいように思える。
縄文土器、土偶とも通底する精神性が明らかなのではないか。
その後の時代の仏教寺院の縁起絵巻に表現される「鳥獣戯画」や
さらに現代に隆盛しているマンガ文化まで延々と日本人に受け継がれている。
もし日本文化が世界共通性を獲得していくとすれば、
その最大の文化資産はマンガ文明ではないかと個人的に思っている。
直感的視覚的表現力において日本は際だっている部分がある。
縄文・弥生の人びとのこういう表現力からは強いパワーを感じる。


さて本日朝のわが家前の積雪状況。
本格的な積雪感はまだ感じませんが、そこそこの積雪。
北国人は久しぶりに見る光景にしずかな感情を抱かされます。
いろいろな感情がそこで一旦ストップするみたいな雪のパワー。
この「淡々と受け入れる」季節感がまるで「洗礼」儀式のようでもある。
多忙な日々が訪れていますが、静かに受け止めていくしかありません。

English version⬇

Jomon – Yayoi Familiarity with Expressionism: The 37,000-Year History of the Japanese Archipelago – 31
The unique cultural customs and original expressions of the archipelago people described in the Wei-Shi-Wa-jin-Den. The Maritime Ethnicity Leading to the Manga Culture? …

I have the impression that the Yayoi and Jomon periods are not necessarily discontinuous.
It is that many traces of Yayoi “self-portraits” were painted on earthenware, carved on woodblocks
carved into woodblocks, or sculpted in clay.
In addition, the culture of “Paintings with a facial tattoo” is mentioned in the Wei Zhi Wajinden, which is said to be the first record of the Japanese archipelago in China.
There are also traces of evidence of the custom that became the subject of this culture.
This “culture” as a custom must have existed strongly.
〜From Obihang-gun to Queen-no-kuni, a distance of more than 12,000 ri. Every male, large or small, has a tattooed face and body.
Since ancient times, when their envoys came to China, they all called themselves “Da Fu.
When the son of Shaokang, the Empress of the Xia Dynasty, was appointed to Huiyue, he had his hair cut off and his body styled to avoid the danger of rain dragons.
The Japanese sailors of today prefer to sink to catch clams and clams, and they are also averse to large fishes and fowls.
Later, they were used as decorations. The body of each country is different.
Some are to the left, some to the right, some are large, some are small, and there are differences in respect.
The distance to the east of Dongji in Haeguei should be the best place to start. 〜(Wei Zhi Wan Dian)

Is this a custom of the Kaijin tribe, or is it a punishment for criminals?
According to the descriptions in Kiki and other sources, it seems that the ruling class did not have such customs after that time.
On the contrary, it seems that there existed in the basic sense of the archipelago people a mentality that tolerated expressions such as those in the photos and illustrations above.
I think there existed a mentality that tolerated such expressions as the above photos and illustrations in the basic sense of the archipelago people.
The Yayoi and Jomon cultures coexisted, and this kind of
The Yayoi and Jomon cultures coexisted, and the influence of their culture on the kitschy expressions of the Yayoi and Jomon was strong.
This kind of expressive power shows the nature of “maritime peoples.
This kind of expressive power shows the nature of a “maritime people,” and the affinity with the peoples of North America, South America, and Southeast Asia in the Pacific Rim.
A spirituality that is never easily tainted by continental cultural uniformity.
The Jomon people seem to have a spirituality that is not easily imbued with continental uniformity, which is close to the basic “cultural motivation” of the Japanese people.
The same spirituality is evident in Jomon earthenware and clay figurines.
The “Birds, beasts, and caricatures” expressed in Buddhist temple auspicious scrolls of later periods, as well as the “Manga culture” flourishing in modern times, are also clear examples of this spirituality.
The Japanese culture has been handed down from generation to generation, even to the manga culture that is flourishing in the modern age.
If Japanese culture is to gain global commonality, the greatest cultural asset of Japanese culture must be the manga civilization.
I personally believe that the greatest cultural asset of Japanese culture will be the manga civilization.
Japan stands out in its ability to express itself intuitively and visually.
The Jomon and Yayoi people’s ability to express themselves in this way gives me a strong sense of power.

This is the snow in front of our house this morning.
I don’t feel the full-blown snowfall yet, but there is a good amount of snow.
People from the north feel a sense of calmness at the sight of snow that they have not seen in a long time.
The power of the snow is such that all emotions seem to stop there for a moment.
This sense of “accepting the season without hesitation” is like a “baptismal” ceremony.
Busy days are coming, but we have no choice but to accept it quietly.

【ネコとネズミの永続戦争 from弥生 日本列島37,000年史-30】




食糧生産の革命だった農業革命は「備蓄」を可能にした。
その保存のために「高床式」という通風重視の建築が最初期から営まれた。
床下空間を広く開放して食糧を土面からの湿度から保全した。
こういう高床の建築思想は南方島嶼での人類知の結果なのだろう。
高床については縄文期の三内丸山遺跡でも「クリ」の貯蔵などで
推定例が確認され、そこでは「コクゾウムシ」痕跡も見られるという。
微生物の世界でも歴史は刻印されている。
コメ生産では、最初期からこの高床での貯蔵がワンセットの概念とされる。

で、高床倉庫ではよく「ネズミ返し」の工夫などが見られるけれど、
収穫された食糧の大敵はネズミによる食害。
その食害への安全保障策としての対策が講じられることになった。
最上策として、列島の自然環境の中ではそれまでいなかった
ネコを「輸入して」積極的に飼育しイエネコとして採用し
対ネズミとして軍事的に戦おう、という人類戦略が確認できる。
いわば稲作の推進の当然の帰結として導入される結果になった。
というか、日本列島に稲作が上陸した段階というのは
稲作文明が相当進化した段階であって、さまざまな農作の経験知が
「一気に」導入された実態が浮かび上がってくる。
従来の日本史では仏教伝来とともに紙の経典のネズミ食害を防ぐために
大陸から持ってこられた、というネコ列島起源説が語られていたけれど、
稲作文化と同時に渡来していた、という説が有力になってきた。
娘とは違ってわたし自身はネコにはほとんど興味が無いけれど、
そう考えると、ネコという愛玩動物もまた歴史的に新しい存在となる。
人類社会、その進化というのは非常に奥行きの深い世界。
イヌやネコといった人類の有用動物として接近してきた動物種との歴史って
もっと太古の昔からのことと漠然と思っていたけれど、
そもそも現生人類の歴史自体、7-8万年なのだから
必ず始原期というものがあってその痕跡をたどれるのは道理。
ネコが列島に棲息しはじめたのは農耕革命、弥生の世からなのだ。
どんなに遡っても高々3000年程度、
ブログシリーズタイトルの37,000年史からすればごく最近。
紆余曲折があってか、平安期には貴族の高級ペットだったともいう。
ともあれ、始原期にはこういう高床倉庫での対ネズミ戦争の「傭兵」として
武力機能を期待されて導入されていたというのですね。

東アジア大陸社会でも、ネコは中東方面からの輸入動物種だったとされ、
案外と人類との縁はごく最近深まってきたのだ。
イヌの方はもっと古く1万年前頃の最終氷期以降とされる。
考古からのフィードバックによってこういうペットたちとの歴史まで
思わぬ新発見をわたしたちにもたらしてくれる。
ひょっとすると犬好き、猫好きという人間の嗜好性についても
科学的、DNA的に解明されていく可能性もありそうですね。

English version⬇

The Perpetual War between Cats and Rats from Yayoi: 37,000 Years of the Japanese Archipelago – 30
Historical traces in the relationship with cats. Warriors continue to fight against the rat army as mercenaries in a warehouse of agricultural products on stilts. …

The agricultural revolution, which was a revolution in food production, made “stockpiling” possible.
In order to preserve the food, “stilts,” a type of architecture that emphasized ventilation, was practiced from the beginning.
The space under the floor was opened widely to protect the food from the humidity from the soil.
This architectural concept of stilts is probably the result of human knowledge of the southern islands.
There are presumed examples of stilts at the Sannai-Maruyama site during the Jomon period, such as those used to store chestnuts.
There, traces of the weevil are said to have been found.
History is also imprinted in the world of microorganisms.
In rice production, storage on stilts has been a set concept since the beginning.

In the high-floor warehouses, one can often see the ingenious “rat repellent” method.
The great enemy of preservation of harvested food is the rodent infestation.
Therefore, measures were taken as a security measure against such food damage.
As the best measure, they “imported” cats, which had not existed in the natural environment of the archipelago until then, and actively introduced them to Japan.
Cats, which had never existed in the natural environment of the archipelago, were “imported,” actively bred, and adopted as Aエネko (Aedes aegypti).
The concept of fighting militarily against rats can also be confirmed.
The introduction of the cat, so to speak, was a natural consequence of the promotion of rice cultivation.
The stage when rice cultivation landed on the Japanese archipelago was the stage when rice civilization had evolved considerably.
the stage of considerable evolution of rice cultivation civilization, and the actual situation in which various kinds of
The reality of the “sudden” introduction of various agricultural experiences and knowledge comes to the fore.
In conventional Japanese history, the introduction of Buddhism was accompanied by the introduction of cats, which were brought from the continent to prevent rodents from eating the sutras, but this was not the case with the arrival of rice cultivation.
However, the origin of cats in the archipelago was said to be that they were brought from the continent with the arrival of Buddhism
However, the theory that they came to Japan at the same time as the rice culture is gaining strength.
Although I myself had little interest in cats
But, in that sense, the cat as a pet animal is also a new existence in history.
Human society and its evolution is a very deep world.
The history of dogs, cats, and other animal species that have come close to being useful to humans
I had vaguely thought that the history with animal species that approached humans as useful animals, such as dogs and cats, goes back much further than the earliest times.
But the history of present-day humans itself is only 70,000 to 80,000 years old.
It is only logical that there must have been a primordial period, which can be traced as traces.
Cats began to inhabit the archipelago during the agricultural revolution of the Yayoi period.
That would mean that no matter how far back in time we go, it would only be about 3,000 years at the most.
In the context of the 37,000-year history of the title of this blog series, this is very recent.
It is said that the pet was a luxury pet of the aristocracy during the Heian period (794-1192).
Anyway, in the primitive period, they were introduced as “mercenaries” in the war against rats in stilt warehouses like this.
In East Asia, cats were also introduced as “mercenaries” in the war against rats in stilt warehouses.

It is said that cats were imported from the Middle East even in East Asian continental societies.
The relationship between cats and humans has deepened more recently than one might expect.
Canines are thought to be much older, dating back to the Paleolithic and Last Glacial Period, 10,000 years ago.
Feedback from archaeology has led to unexpected new discoveries about the history of our pets.
The history with these pets also brings us unexpected new discoveries through feedback from archaeology.
Perhaps the human preference for dogs and cats will be scientifically and DNA
It is possible that the human preference for dogs and cats will also be scientifically and DNA-based elucidated.

【中国・秦成立以降の東アジア 日本列島37,000年史-29】



紀元前221年に中国大陸では「統一国家・秦」が成立し秦の始皇帝が出現した。
中国大陸では揚子江河口を中心とするコメ生産地域と黄河流域の小麦地域という
2つの基本的食糧生産システムが併存するけれど、
小麦と製粉技術が中国に伝来したのは漢代(紀元前202〜紀元後220年)。
前漢の武帝により西域に派遣された張騫の行路=シルクロード経由で
西方からもたらされた。唐代(618〜907年)になると、華北平原で
小麦栽培が盛んになり特権階級のものだった麺が北方民衆に普及したとされる。
・・・そうすると中国大陸でも「国家」という武力権力は
コメ生産システムの社会普及と並行してきたのだといえる。
秦による中国大陸の統一という事態は、当時の東アジア世界にとっては
相当のインパクトを持って波動していったことは容易に想像できる。
なんといっても日本列島は東アジア世界にとっては「ニューフロンティア」。
たしかに縄文のライフスタイルを固守する先住の人びとは存在したけれど、
九州北部地域から徐々に水田農耕が波及していった段階。
ちょうどアメリカ大陸にヨーロッパからの移住者が進出したのと似たことが
紀元前の時期に「弥生文化」として列島に波及したと思える。
人口規模を支える経済基盤としての優位性は縄文を凌駕していただろう。
この水田農耕地域の「東進」はようやく関東・房総へ到達した段階。
環日本海圏である津軽地域にはこれより以前、紀元前4世紀に到達。
そういうコメ文化受容段階で中国では統一国家が出現したことになる。
秦が統一を果たしてすぐに着手したのが「度量衡の統一」。
国家支配の基本原理が農耕社会の土地や収穫物の計量だったことは
その権力の基盤構造をあきらかにしてくれる。

こうした東アジア的な祭政の基本原理による強大な武力権力への
恐怖というものが容易に列島社会に伝わったことも想像に難くない。
大陸が小国家分立状態であるのと、統一国家であるのとでは
「脅威」の度合いがはるかに違うだろう。
コメ文化によって画一的なライフスタイル、文化圏が作られていくほどに
大陸との国際関係論という意識構造が列島社会で支配的になったことも
これは必然的な成り行きだったことだろう。
この時代以降、神武東征によって古代王権が姿を現す段階まで
国際的な緊張関係として列島社会に迫られていた政治要素だったといえる。
いわゆる「日本史」という事象が徐々に成立していくことになる。・・・


こうした東アジア圏地域での歴史的な「波動」は現代にも
まったく同様に生起し、いわば運命的な「共存関係」が存在している。
海洋国家として世界に開く方向をいち早く選択した日本社会は
幾多の歴史困難を超えて自由社会の価値感を世界と共有しているけれど、
巨大人口の中国社会では現代も困難な局面を迎えている。
あまりにも巨大すぎることが、政治のありようを困難にするのだろうけれど、
独裁が歴史的に一般的な大陸国家で、あからさまな独裁者批判が
朝の雄鶏の叫び声のようにこだましはじめている。
大陸国家での易姓革命ごとの東アジア世界危機も経験してきた日本人として
自然に鋭敏にならざるを得ない。さてどうなっていくのか?

English version⬇

37,000-Year History of the Japanese Archipelago in East Asia since the Establishment of the Qin Dynasty in China – 29
The dictatorship of the “emperor” emerged during the period of acceptance of the rice production system. The long-lasting coexistence in the East Asian world. …

In 221 B.C., the “unified state of Qin” was established on the Chinese continent and Qin Shi Huangdi, the first emperor of China, emerged.
In mainland China, two basic food production systems coexist: the rice production area centered at the mouth of the Yangtze River and the wheat production area in the Yellow River valley.
Two basic food production systems coexist on the Chinese mainland: rice production centered at the mouth of the Yangtze River, and wheat production in the Yellow River valley.
Wheat and milling technology were introduced to China during the Han Dynasty (202 B.C. to 220 A.D.).
It was brought to China from the West via the Silk Road by Zhang An, who was dispatched to the West by Emperor Wu of the previous Han Dynasty.
Zhang Xian was dispatched to the West by Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty. In the Tang dynasty (618-907 A.D.), wheat cultivation flourished in the North China Plain
Wheat cultivation flourished in the Tang Dynasty (618-907) in the North China Plain, and noodles, which were once the preserve of the privileged class, are said to have spread to the people of the north.
In this way, the armed power of the “state” in mainland China was also
This suggests that the military power of the “state” in mainland China was concurrent with the spread of the rice production system in the society.
The unification of the Chinese continent by the Qin Dynasty had a considerable impact on the East Asian world at that time.
It is easy to imagine that the unification of the Chinese continent by the Qin Dynasty had a considerable impact on the East Asian world at that time.
After all, the Japanese archipelago was the “new frontier” for East Asia.
While it is true that there were indigenous peoples who adhered to the Jomon lifestyle, there was also a gradual shift to paddy field agriculture from the northern Kyushu region.
However, the Jomon lifestyle was not yet fully realized in Japan until the paddy field agriculture gradually spread from the northern Kyushu region.
This is similar to the arrival of European immigrants in the Americas.
The Yayoi culture, similar to the European immigration to the Americas, spread to the archipelago in the prehistoric period.
The Yayoi culture would have surpassed the Jomon in terms of its superiority as an economic base to support the size of the population.
This “eastward expansion” of rice paddy farming areas finally reached the Kanto and Boso regions.
The Tsugaru region, which is part of the Japan Sea Rim, was reached earlier, in the 4th century BC.
It was at this stage of rice culture acceptance that a unified state emerged in China.
As soon as the Qin Dynasty achieved unification, it immediately set about “unifying the balance of weights and measures.
The fact that the basic principle of state rule was the weighing of land and harvests in an agrarian society
The fact that the basic principle of state rule was the measurement of land and harvests in an agrarian society reveals the foundational structure of power.

The fear of a strong military power based on such a basic principle of East Asian rituals is easily transmitted to the societies of the archipelago.
It is not difficult to imagine that the fear of powerful military power based on these basic principles of East Asian rituals could be easily transmitted to the island societies.
The degree of “threat” would be much different if the continent were a unified nation than if it were a divided state of small states.
The degree of “threat” would be far different.
The more uniform lifestyles and cultural spheres are created by rice culture
The more uniform lifestyles and cultural spheres were created by the rice culture, the more the structure of consciousness of international relations with the continent became dominant in the archipelago society.
This was an inevitable consequence.
From this period onward, until the ancient royal power emerged through the Jinmu expedition
This was a political element of international tension that was pressing on the society of the archipelago.
The so-called “history of Japan” was gradually established. …

These historical “waves” in the East Asian region
The same historical “waves” in the East Asian region are occurring in the present day, and a fateful “coexistence” exists, so to speak.
Japanese society, which was one of the first to choose to open itself to the world as a maritime nation, shares the values of a free society with the rest of the world.
Japanese society, which chose to open itself to the world as a maritime nation, has overcome many historical difficulties and shares the values of a free society with the rest of the world.
However, the Chinese society, with its huge population, is facing a difficult phase even in the present age.
The sheer size of the population may make politics difficult, but it also makes it more difficult to maintain a free society.
In a continental nation where dictatorships have historically been the norm, overt criticism of dictatorships is
The overt criticism of dictatorships in continental countries, where dictatorships have historically been common, is beginning to echo like the crowing of a morning rooster.
As Japanese who have experienced the East Asian world crisis that followed the Yi Surname Revolution in the continental world
I am naturally sensitive to the situation. What will happen now?

【戦争は農耕社会の基本原理 日本列島37,000年史-28】




産経新聞はその出身者である司馬遼太郎の存在でもわかるように
文化部では日本史への取材の深みが蓄積されていると思う。
その2019年の記事で千葉県佐倉市の国立歴史民俗博物館(歴博)の
「先史時代および古代を扱う常設の第1展示室が、昭和58年の開館以来、
初めてリニューアルされた。」
という趣旨の記事が掲載されていた。遅ればせながら初めて知った。
「2019/3/25 14:00磨井慎吾」。まことに感染症の影響を実感。
〜日本列島に現生人類が出現した37,000年前から日本を国号とする
古代国家が成立した7~8世紀までの約36,000年間に及ぶ。
弥生時代の開始年代が約500年さかのぼるなど、先史時代を中心に
開館以降の36年間で大きく進歩した歴史研究の成果を反映させた、
大規模かつ意欲的な展示刷新。〜というリード。さらに
〜この30数年間、歴博は放射性炭素年代測定法などで多くの成果を生み出した。
(展示は)われわれが学んだ教科書で描かれた歴史像から大きく変わった」
今回の全面リニューアルの背景について、歴博の久留島浩館長はそう語る。〜
まさにわたしが感じていた展示リニューアルの衝撃を語ってくれている。

とくに「弥生」の開始が500年さかのぼる、という点が目を見張る。
展示されている内容は、きのうまで書いてきた内容なのだけれど、
展示から類推していけば、北部九州にやってきた水田耕作は
すでに「社会組織」ごと移動してきたような印象を感じさせてくれる。
高度な労働力組織化があって農業土木工事が行われている痕跡。
在地の縄文の人びとがこうした労役に参加したかどうか。
そしてきのう触れたようにコメ農耕の開始と同時期に「戦死者」も出現する。
農業土木と戦死痕跡には若干のタイムラグがあるようだが、
戦死痕跡の発見確率を考慮すれば、同時だったと考えた方が自然。
環濠集落という「城」の原初形態の出現とも考え合わせると、
弥生の農耕社会は、戦争と権力を揺籃したのだと確定できる。
こうした社会での争闘の普遍化は当然のように武力と権力機構の
過酷な進化・巨大化を促していったことも疑いがない。

そして紀元前3世紀には中国で秦の始皇帝という武力権力が成立する。
それ以前にも「殷」国家が存在しただろうけれど、東アジア世界一帯に
強大な強制力の恐怖が波動していったという意味で
農耕社会の基本原理=戦争という実相が極限的に露わになった。
たぶんそういう意味での「画時代的」な社会変動と認識されたに違いない。
日本の国家権力の草創は、こうした東アジアの戦争権力との相関関係が
もっとも大きな要因だったのだと思える。
成立した強大な武力権力に対してどのように対応すべきか、
このことは列島での人類進化上で、非常に大きなインパクトだっただろう。
農耕社会の進展で人口規模も幾何級数的に拡大して、
支配構造・祭政の要素が喫緊の社会課題になっていった。・・・

English version⬇

War is a Fundamental Principle of Agrarian Society: The 37,000-Year History of the Japanese Archipelago – 28
The development of productive forces also prompted the evolution of ritual power and violent devices to control them, and the societies of the archipelago were forced to respond. …

Sankei Shimbun, as evidenced by its native, Ryotaro Shiba.
I believe that the Culture Department has accumulated a depth of coverage of Japanese history.
In its 2019 article on the National Museum of Japanese History (Rekihaku) in Sakura City, Chiba Prefecture.
“The first permanent exhibition room dealing with prehistory and antiquity has been renovated for the first time since the museum opened in 1983.
“The first renovation since the museum’s opening in 1983.
I learned about it for the first time, albeit belatedly. I knew about it for the first time, though I was late.
I am very much aware of the effects of the infection. I really feel the effects of infectious diseases.
~37,000 years ago when the present humans appeared in the Japanese archipelago, and Japan as the country name.
The period covers about 36,000 years from the 7th to the 8th century when the ancient nation was established.
The museum focuses on prehistoric periods, including the Yayoi Period, which dates back about 500 years to the beginning of the Yayoi Period.
The museum has undergone a major and ambitious exhibition renewal, reflecting the results of historical research that has progressed significantly in the 36 years since the museum opened.
The museum has undergone a major and ambitious renovation of its exhibits, reflecting the results of significant advances in historical research over the 36 years since its opening. 〜The lead of the new exhibition is “The Yayoi Period” (1870-1900). In addition
〜The exhibition will be a major renewal of the museum’s collection, reflecting the great advances made in historical research over the past 36 years since the museum opened, particularly in the field of prehistory.
(The exhibits have changed dramatically from the image of history portrayed in the textbooks we have studied.
Rekihaku Director Hiroshi Kurushima explains the background behind the complete renewal of the museum. 〜The exhibition has been completely renewed.
This is exactly how I felt the impact of the renewal of the exhibition.

The fact that the “Yayoi period” dates back 500 years is particularly striking.
The contents of the exhibition are the same as those I have written about until yesterday.
By analogy with what I have already written yesterday, the paddy field cultivation that came to northern Kyushu
The exhibition gives us the impression that the paddy cultivators who came to Northern Kyushu had already moved with their “social organization” to the region.
There are traces of agricultural and civil engineering works with a high level of labor organization.
We wonder if the local Jomon people participated in this kind of labor.
As I mentioned yesterday, “war dead” appeared at the same time as rice cultivation began.
There seems to be a slight time lag between the agricultural engineering and the traces of war deaths.
However, considering the probability of finding traces of war deaths, it is more natural to assume that they occurred at the same time.
When combined with the appearance of the proto-form of “castles” called moat encircling settlements
We can conclude that the agricultural society of the Yayoi period was the cradle of war and power.
The universalization of warfare in such a society naturally led to the severe evolution and expansion of armed forces and power structures.
The universalization of conflict in such societies naturally led to the severe evolution and massive growth of military power and power structures.

In the 3rd century B.C., the military power of Qin Shi Huangdi was established in China.
Although the Shang state may have existed before then, the fear of a powerful coercive force would have been the wave that would have swept across the entire East Asian world.
In the sense that the fear of a powerful coercive force spread throughout the East Asian world.
The basic principle of agrarian society = the reality of warfare was exposed to the utmost limit.
Perhaps it must have been recognized as an “epochal” social change in this sense.
It seems to me that the most important factor in the pioneering of Japanese state power was its correlation with the war powers of East Asia.
The pioneering of Japanese state power was most likely due to this correlation with the war powers of East Asia.
The question of how to respond to the powerful armed forces that had been established in the East Asian region was a key question in the evolution of the human race in the archipelago.
This was probably the most important factor in the evolution of human beings in the archipelago.
As the size of the population expanded geometrically with the development of agrarian societies, the elements of the ruling structure and rituals became more and more important.
The elements of the ruling structure and ritual government became an urgent social issue. …

【農耕社会=戦争が同時に誕生日本列島37,000年史-27】




紀元前10世紀後半、約3,000年前九州北部で開始された農耕社会。
それとほぼ随伴して紀元前9世紀には「最初の戦死者」が出現する。
水田耕作は計画的に土地を土木工事して田んぼを造作し、
そこにこれも目的的に水利を確保するために「引水」することになる。
最初期から日本列島ではこういう計画的農耕が推進された。
したがって有利な土地を巡って、そして有利な「水利」を巡って
隣接するムラ集団同士は、恒常的な反目関係を生み出す。
縄文社会とは比較できないほどの「人口密度」社会では
こういった緊張関係が加速度的に進展したことは理の当然。
いちばん上の発掘写真は開始された列島社会での戦争の死者の埋葬例。
人類社会普遍の進化として戦争行為というものはある。
食糧の大量生産とその富の蓄積は、同時にそれを略奪しようとする
人類普遍的な欲望を強く刺激した。
生産基盤となる「農業土木」は大量の人員の労働力によって成立するので、
縄文とは比較にならない人口規模社会であり、その土木技術と成員拡大で
戦争の手段と人員「知恵と工夫」も進化したと言えるのだろう。

そのような事態の進展に対応して広域に「環濠」集落が成立する。
ムラ社会は日常の生産活動の集団化によって集村化が自然で
生活共同体としてのムラが発生した。日常生活の竪穴住居群や
生産物を保存する高床倉庫などがそのなかで構築された。
そういうムラ集住環境では、外敵からの襲撃に備えて
共同体の土地の周囲を環濠で囲むようにして、さらにそこで掘られた土を
土塁として高く盛り上げた。頂部にはさらに木組みの柵が構築された。
さらにその周囲には逆茂木や乱杭を設置。初源の「城」だろう。
防衛的戦争準備とするようになっていった。
弥生の初期600年間では金属器・鉄器はまだ普及せず、
人びとは生産作業道具としては木製の鍬やスキなど、そしてコメの採取でも
「石包丁」で収穫していたとされている。
ただ、縄文以来の狩猟具としての弓矢などは当然保持して
戦いの主要武器になっただろうし、石棒から進化した石刀もあった。
後半の600年間以降は開発導入された青銅器・鉄器といった、より鋭利な武器に
進化して行くけれどこの前期段階でもすでに「戦死者」が出ている。

マルクスエンゲルスが想像したような古代社会のありようではなく、
こういう初源的な戦争においても参加者は主体的意思を持っていたと思える。
ムラを守る、という集団的自衛権・自然的な発意からだろう。
いずれにしてもこのような「戦争の起源の発掘」のようなことも
考古事実・人類知として客観的把握できるようになってきたことは
非常に素晴らしいと思う次第。
戦争という人類が随伴した惨禍についても冷静にそれを評価判断することで
それをどう克服できるのかということに繋がっていくだろう。

English version⬇

Agrarian Society and War Simultaneously: The 37,000-Year History of the Japanese Archipelago – 27
The development of agricultural engineering, water use, land conflicts, and other aspects of agriculture were always accompanied by the danger of war. Moat encircling settlements for collective self-defense appeared at the same time. War, war, and war

Late 10th century B.C., about 3,000 years ago, an agrarian society began in northern Kyushu.
agricultural society that began in northern Kyushu about 3,000 years ago in the late 10th century B.C. The “first war dead” appeared in the 9th century B.C.E., almost as a corollary.
Paddy field cultivation was a method of systematically constructing rice paddies by civil engineering.
This was also done for the purpose of “drawing water” in order to secure water supply.
From the beginning, this type of planned agriculture was promoted in the Japanese archipelago.
Therefore, neighboring village groups were competing with each other for favorable lands and for favorable “water resources”.
Adjacent village groups would develop a constant rivalry with each other.
In a “densely populated” society that cannot be compared to Jomon society
It is only natural that these tensions developed at an accelerated pace.
The top photo is an example of the burial of war dead in an archipelagic society initiated in this way.
The act of war is a universal evolution of human society.
The mass production of food and the accumulation of its wealth have at the same time
The mass production of food and the accumulation of its wealth have at the same time strongly stimulated the universal desire of humankind to plunder it.
The “agricultural engineering” that forms the basis of this process is based on the labor of large numbers of people, so the scale of the population is not comparable to that of the Jomon.
The Jomon were a society with a population scale incomparable to that of the Jomon, and with their civil engineering technology and expansion of their members, they were able to
The means of warfare and “wisdom and ingenuity” also evolved with the expansion of civil engineering technology and the number of members.

In response to this development, “moat encircling” settlements were established over a wide area.
Mura society is a natural result of the collectivization of daily production activities, and the emergence of the mura as a community of life.
The mura emerged as a living community. Pit dwellings for daily life and stilted warehouses for storing products were built.
and warehouses on stilts for storing products were constructed.
In such a village environment, the community land was surrounded by a ring
The earth dug up from the moat was raised high as an earthwork.
The earth dug up there was heaped up high as an earthen mound. At the top, a wooden fence was further constructed.
In addition, reverse bushes and random stakes were set up around it.
These were used as defensive preparations for war.
In the first 600 years of the Yayoi period, metal and iron tools were not yet widely used.
People used wooden hoes and skis as tools for production work, and even for rice harvesting
It is believed that people used wooden hoes and skis as tools for production, and stone knives for rice harvesting.
However, they naturally retained bows and arrows, which had been used as hunting tools since the Jomon period, and which were probably the main weapons in battle.
The stone sword was also introduced as an evolution from the stone stick.
In the latter half of the 600 years, the weapons evolved into sharper weapons such as bronzes and irons, which were developed and introduced during this period.
Even in this early stage, however, there were already “deaths in battle.

This is not the way Marx Engels imagined ancient societies to be, but the way they were in the beginning.
Even in these primordial wars, the participants seem to have had a proactive will.
It may be out of a collective self-defense or natural initiative to protect the mullahs.
In any case, this kind of “excavation of the origins of war” is also
I think it is wonderful that we are now able to objectively grasp human knowledge
I think it is wonderful that we can now objectively grasp human knowledge as archaeological facts.
By calmly evaluating and judging the scourge of war that has accompanied mankind, we can connect to the question of how we can overcome it.
how we can overcome them.