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【古代氏族「忌部氏」祈りの残影 徳島・三木家住宅-3】




 阿波の忌部氏というのは古代氏族。このブログ連載で記述中の「三木家住宅」はその後裔家系。この古代氏族・忌部氏はのちの藤原氏である中臣氏とともに朝廷の祭祀を司る氏族とされる。本願の地は大和国・橿原とされるが、朝廷に献上する麻の生産を司っていたのが阿波国の在地の同氏族。令和の天皇即位の大嘗祭に際してこの三木家が中核になって、麁服(あらたえ)を献上したことで一般に広く知られるようになった。古代氏族の忌部氏は阿波国で衣類生産を重要な役務として朝廷に奉仕してきた歴史。
 現代生活で言えば「限界集落」とでも思われるような徳島県の山間部高地に居を構えて、そのような古代的な役務の家系伝統を持っていることを知った次第。わたしと同姓ということで興味を持ってたまたまの訪問機会で知ったのだけれど、知るほどに奥底の深さに驚かされる。現地に行って見て、非常にスピリチュアルと感じていたのには、空中高地の麻畑が鳥居まで立てて神聖視してあることに驚かされたこともあるけれど、その先には三木山の山頂部があり、そこに古代忌部氏・三木家の墓域が広がっていたのを見たことが大きかった。
 上の写真は三木家住宅から奥の山頂部への眺望、生け垣から墓域を見た光景。そして導かれるようにたどりついたお墓群の様子。朝廷に献上する麻を一族の神聖な役務としてそれこそ身命と家系のすべてを掛けて保守し、連綿と伝承してきたその迫力に気圧されてしまった。


 墓域にはたくさんの石標があるが、さらには基壇石だけになったものも多数あって、よく見るとその前には御神酒を供えたとおぼしき陶器片も散在している。三木家のはるかなご先祖のみなさんの生き様がそこに脈々とあるように思われて、思わず合掌させられておりました。
 わたし自身、たまたま千葉県南端の館山を最近訪れたことがあるのですが、そこで参拝した「安房神社」はこの阿波国から古代に忌部氏が東遷した、そのことを証すものだとされている。なぜかまるで導かれているような因縁を深く感じさせられた。まことにスピリチュアル。奇妙な偶然に驚いている次第。
 日本史での大成功氏族、中臣氏・藤原氏と朝廷祭祀という分野で競合関係にあったことから、歴史の表舞台からは後退していったとされるけれど、日本の古代史探究においてはきわめて重要な痕跡を残している。これは行きがかり上もう少し詳細に調べてみたいと思っている。
 衣食住というように人間生活の基本が語られるけれど、衣、それも天皇に献上するものを司っていた氏族についての具体的なふれあいというのも得がたい体験。それもなぜか北海道からたまたま訪問して遭遇するというのも非常に運命的かなと。まことに迷宮に突き落とされたような気分(笑)。現地では住宅内部は見られなかったけれど資料のPDFは入手できたので、明日以降、住宅についても探究してみたい。

English version⬇

Remnants of Ancient Clan “Imobe Clan” Prayer: The Miki Family Residence, Tokushima-3
The graveyard where the family’s ancestors are buried is spread out on the mountain, and many grave markers and traces are scattered around. The power of the graves is overwhelming. The power of the site is overwhelming.

 The Imobe clan of Awa is an ancient clan. The “Miki Family Residence” described in this blog series is a descendant of this family. This ancient clan, the Imobe, along with the Nakatomi clan, which later became the Fujiwara clan, is said to have been the clan in charge of rituals at the Imperial Court. Although the site of the main temple is said to be Kashihara in Yamato Province, the same local clan in Awa Province was in charge of the production of hemp to be presented to the Imperial Court. The Miki family played a central role in the ceremonial offering of hemp to the Emperor at the time of his accession to the throne in 2022, and this became widely known to the general public. The history of the Imobe clan, an ancient clan, is that they served the Imperial Court by producing clothing as an important service in Awa Province.
 I learned that the Imobe clan has a family tradition of such ancient services in the mountainous highlands of Tokushima Prefecture, which would be considered a “marginal settlement” in modern life. I was interested in learning about them because they share my family name, but the more I learned about them, the more I was surprised at the depth of their family traditions. I was surprised to see that a hemp field in the highlands was considered sacred, with even a torii gate built in the middle of the field.
 The photo above shows the view from the Miki family residence to the summit of the mountain, looking through the hedge toward the grave site. And this is the view of the graves that we were led to. I was overwhelmed by the power of the hemp, which was offered to the Imperial Court as a sacred family service, and which the Miki family had maintained and passed down from generation to generation, risking their own lives and those of their family members to maintain the hemp.

  There are many stone markers in the graveyard, but there are also many that are only base stones, and if you look closely, you can see pieces of pottery that appear to have been used to offer sacred wine in front of them. It seemed as if the lives of the Miki family’s distant ancestors were still alive there, and I could not help but feel my hands clasped together in prayer.
 I happened to visit Tateyama, located at the southern tip of Chiba Prefecture, recently, and visited the Awa Shrine, which is said to be a proof that the Imobe clan moved eastward from this Awa province in ancient times. For some reason, I felt a deep sense of causality, as if I was being guided. It was truly spiritual. I was surprised by the strange coincidence.
 Although it is said that the Nakatomi and Fujiwara clans, the most successful clans in Japanese history, were in competition with each other in the field of imperial court rituals, and thus fell back from the center stage of history, they have left behind extremely important traces in the exploration of ancient Japanese history. However, they have left behind traces that are extremely important in the study of Japan’s ancient history.
 The basics of human life, such as food, clothing, and shelter, are discussed, but it was also a rare experience to have a concrete contact with a clan that was in charge of clothing, especially that which was presented to the emperor. It is also a very fateful that I happened to visit from Hokkaido and encountered them. I felt as if I had been plunged into a labyrinth (laugh). I was not able to see the inside of the house, but I was able to obtain a PDF of the documents, so I would like to explore the house from tomorrow onward.

 
 
 

【神宿る山岳高地暮らしへのこだわり 徳島・三木家住宅-2】



本日も徳島県の山間の「空中住居」とでもいえる三木家住宅その2であります。
わたしたち現代人は利便性最優先で経済的根拠に基づいて住宅を建てたり、購入する場所を選んでいる。これが支配的で多くの場合、職場との時間距離と見合うかで判断して居住地を決定するケースが多いのだと思う。
一方でそれとは違って先祖代々その土地に住み続けて、そうすることが自然だと考えて住んでいるというケースもあるだろう。日本社会の構造としての食糧生産システム、農村社会のありようがそれに相当する。前者が現代的経済効率に根拠を置くのに対して、こちらは伝統的な経済共同体の価値感を重視する考え方と言えるのだろう。日本的ムラ社会もまた過去から経済基盤最優先の居住選択だろう。山岳地域での棚田主力では「水利」の面で困難が伴うので、その多くは水利を第1に考えた立地環境、多くは河川流域を開発した地域に立地する。
この徳島県の山岳高地に点在居住する共同体の中核的古民家を見ていると、どうもそういった常識的価値感とは違った生き様を見る思いがしてくる。いわば現代生活とも伝統的農業ムラ共同体社会とも違う、古代的なスピリチュアルな価値感、といったものを感じさせられていた。
上の写真はこの三木家住宅の「麻畑」とおぼしき畑地と令和の麁服(あらたえ)調進を成し遂げた記念碑。畑地は整然と区画されて入口には鳥居まで建てられている。この内部で朝廷に調進される麻が育成されていたと推定できる。訪問時にはシカの糞が随所で散見された。そういう光景も自然な施肥のように思えて意味ありげと思われる。自然環境と共生することが「神宿る」ことの実質と感じられるのだ。こうした高地をあえて居住地として選択する意思には、忌部氏という部民としての古代的価値感があるのだろう。「神がかり」ということが上位価値感であるという意思がこの地では現代まで一定の存続を果たしてきている。その奇跡性。


そういう奇跡性を表すようにこの三木家には鎌倉から室町にかけての古文書「三木家文書」が残されている。写真は文保2(1318)年の後醍醐天皇の大嘗会(天皇践祚)時点でのもので、上の方は勅使が神部2人を連れて阿波国に下向する旨を国司に申し渡した文書。下は官宣旨という「下文」とされ、先例に倣って麁服(あらたえ)を織らせるようにという申し渡しの内容。

さらには南北朝の時代、正平22(1368)年という南朝で使われた元号年で表された三木家当主・重村に宛てられた「感状」の綸旨。鎌倉時代末には三木家は南朝に忠誠を尽くした地域武士団の棟梁であったという。脈々と古代的価値感が根付いていることに驚く。四国の山深い地域、現代ではほとんど限界集落と思える地域で、こういう「神宿る」価値感が残り続けていることは、ある種、民俗の底深さを教えてくれる。
日本という国家社会にはまちがいなくこういう山上での空中生活を「神との共生」として尊崇するスピリチュアルな部分が根底にあるのだと思う。アイヌの人びとの伝統的価値感とも通底するような、歴史以前社会から連綿と伝わる民族性の実質なのだろう。先般見た高鴨神社のように弥生以前をも感じさせる。
現代社会はこういう神々しさをどのように未来へ手渡していけるのだろうか?

English version⬇

Commitment to a mountain highland lifestyle where the gods reside MIKI Residence, Tokushima – 2
Ancient “kamikari” life on the mountain, which is different from the rural village community. The spiritual values of this lifestyle remind us of the roots of folklore. Tokushima, Japan

Today, we continue our look at the Miki Family Residence #2, an “aerial dwelling” in the mountains of Tokushima Prefecture.
We modern people choose where to build or buy a house based on economic rationale, placing the highest priority on convenience. In many cases, this is the dominant factor, and in many cases, people decide where to live based on the distance from their workplace in time.
On the other hand, there may be other cases where people have lived in the same place for generations, and they live there because they think it is natural to do so. The food production system as a structure of Japanese society and the way rural society is organized correspond to these cases. While the former is based on modern economic efficiency, the latter emphasizes the values of a traditional economic community. The Japanese “mura” society has also placed the highest priority on economic infrastructure in its choice of settlement. Since terraced rice paddies in mountainous areas are difficult to manage in terms of “water use,” most of them are located in areas where water use is the primary consideration, often in developed river basins.
Looking at these old private houses, which are the core of the community living scattered in the mountainous highlands of Tokushima Prefecture, one gets the impression of a way of life that differs from such common sense values. I felt a sense of ancient spiritual values that are different from those of modern life and traditional farming communities.
The photo above shows what appears to be the “hemp field” of the Miki family residence and the monument that commemorates the completion of the “araatae” ceremony in 2025. The field is neatly divided into sections, and even a torii gate has been erected at the entrance. It can be presumed that hemp to be supplied to the Imperial Court was cultivated in this area. When we visited, deer droppings were found everywhere. Such a sight seemed to be a natural way of fertilization and meaningful. It seems to me that living in harmony with the natural environment is the essence of “dwelling with the gods. The intention to choose such highlands as a place to live may be due to the ancient sense of value of the aborigines as a tribe. The will that “kami hakari” is a higher value has survived to the present day in this area. The miraculousness of it.

As if to show such miraculousness, the Miki family has left behind an old document, the Miki Family Document, dating from Kamakura to Muromachi period. The upper one is a document in which an imperial envoy sent a notice to the provincial governor that he was going down to Awa province with two Shinto priests. The lower part is said to be a “letter of condolence” called “kansenjinshin,” in which the imperial envoy instructed the provincial governor to have them weave clothes in accordance with the precedent.

Furthermore, in the period of the Northern and Southern Dynasties, the “Kanjou” (impressed letter) addressed to Shigemura, the head of the Miki family, expressed in the year Shohei 22 (1368), the original year used by the Southern Dynasties. By the end of the Kamakura period, the Miki family was the leader of a local warrior clan loyal to the Southern Court. It is surprising that ancient values have taken root in the area from generation to generation. The fact that such a sense of “kami shuku” (the gods reside in the land) continues to exist in a mountainous region of Shikoku, an area that today seems almost a marginal settlement, tells us something about the depths of folklore.
I have no doubt that Japan’s national society has a spiritual basis in its reverence for this kind of aerial life on the mountains as “coexistence with the gods. This is the essence of the ethnicity that has been handed down from pre-historic society, which is also the same as the traditional values of the Ainu people. Like the Takagamo Shrine I saw the other day, it also reminds us of the Yayoi period.
How can modern society pass on this kind of godliness to the future?

【大嘗祭に麁服(あらたえ)調進の徳島「三木家住宅」-1】



全国に「三木家住宅」という名のついた古民家で「重要文化財」指定されているものが数軒ある。わたしが知る限り全部で4軒。わたしの姓は三木なので類縁として、また古民家理解に関してもよりリアリティが感じられると思っている。これまでに兵庫県内の2軒については訪問しており、ことしの年始休暇で徳島県美馬市の三木家住宅をはじめて参観してきた。兵庫県の2軒については家系伝承的にもつながりがありそうなので数次訪問しているけれど、こちら徳島はたぶんつながりは乏しいと思っている。忌部氏の末裔ということで、古代からの氏族として朝廷との関わりも深く、今次の令和の大嘗祭において古式に則って、天皇の即位に際しての服・麁服(あらたえ)という麻布の式服素材を「調進」したという家柄。
札幌からなので関空に到着後、淡路で1泊して翌日に徳島県美馬市の「三木山」をめざした。もよりの高速IC「脇町」から約31kmということで、北海道人の道路感覚としては30-40分程度かなぁ、国道だと言うし、という程度の距離認識で向かった。


ところが(笑)、国道(492号)ではあるけれど途中からの山道はほぼ1車線道路で曲がりくねった難路〜酷道・・・。対向車がくればアウトという道を延々と走ることになった。カミさんとふたり「お願いだから対向車が来ませんように」と祈りながらひたすら艱難辛苦。地元のドライバーとおぼしきクルマに追い越してもらってそれについて行ったけれど慣れた人は対向車の危険はほぼ無視するかのようにスピードを上げるので追走は早々と諦めた。あとで帰り道を下ったら、下り側の注意標識で相互に交叉させないような交通案内になっていた。けれどはじめて走る人間にはそういう事情はわからず、ひたすら安全最優先。なんといっても一歩ハンドルを誤れば、路肩から転落する危険性すら高いのだ。
最後の集落から外れて本格的な山道を上がった頂上付近に、この三木家住宅は端座していた。ようやくにしてたどりついたのだけれど、内部は公開されていなくてカギが掛かっていた(泣)。比較的に有名な古民家であり重要文化財ということで平日には公開されているものとばかり思い込んでいた。本宅と「資料館」どちらも内部には入れなかった。そういう点では事前の調査不足を突き付けられた。しかし、周辺の環境など来るまでの苦労が融けていくような素晴らしさで迎えていただけた。神々しいばかりの眺望。
そしてなんといっても天皇の即位儀礼を飾る麻布を謹製する家系という威厳というか、独特の空気感が山上の空間に満ちていた。内部空間を見ることができなかったのは残念だけれど、しかし家というのは内部空間だけではなく、周辺の環境全体が「たたずまい」を構成すると無言で語りかけてくれた。数回に分けてこの三木家住宅をご紹介したい。

English version⬇

The Miki Family Residence in Tokushima, where the “ARATAE” ritual is held on the day of the first ceremonial offering of rice to the goddess of grain.
After a fearful climb up the narrow one-lane “national road” in the Shikoku Valley, you finally visit an ancient private house on top of a mountain. The surrounding environment is relaxing. The Miki Family Residence

There are several old private houses with the name “Miki Family Residence” that have been designated as “Important Cultural Properties” throughout Japan. As far as I know, there are four in total. My family name is Miki, so I feel that I am related to the Miki family and that this gives me a greater sense of reality in terms of understanding old private homes. I have visited two of them in Hyogo Prefecture, and during my New Year’s vacation this year, I visited the Miki family residence in Mima City, Tokushima Prefecture, for the first time. I have visited the two houses in Hyogo Prefecture several times because they seem to be connected in terms of family lore, but I think the connection is probably weak in Tokushima Prefecture. The family is descended from the Imobe clan, a clan that has had a deep connection with the Imperial Court since ancient times, and in accordance with the ancient ceremony of the Great Tamesai Ceremony of 2025, the family “prepared” the emperor’s ceremonial clothes called “aratae” for his accession to the throne.
After arriving at the Kansai International Airport from Sapporo, I stayed overnight in Awaji and set off the next day for “Mt. The distance from Wakimachi, the highway IC from which I was heading, was about 31 km, so I thought it would take about 30-40 minutes from the perspective of Hokkaido people.

However, although it is a national highway (Route 492), the mountain road from the halfway point was almost a one-lane road with twists and turns, a difficult road, and a terrible road…. We had to drive on the road for a long time, and if an oncoming car came along, we would be out of luck. My wife and I prayed that no oncoming cars would come along the road. We asked a car that looked like a local driver to pass us and we followed him, but we gave up on the chase early on because people who are used to driving on the road speed up as if they almost ignore the danger of oncoming cars. When I went down the road later on my way home, I found a warning sign on the downhill side of the road to guide traffic not to cross each other. However, first-time drivers do not understand such circumstances, and safety was our top priority. After all, if you swerve the wrong way, there is a high risk of falling off the shoulder.
The Miki family’s house was located near the top of a mountain road that led out of the last village. We finally arrived at the house, but the inside was locked and not open to the public. I had assumed that the house was open to the public on weekdays, as it is a relatively famous old house and an important cultural property. We were not allowed to go inside either the main house or the “museum. In that respect, we were confronted with a lack of prior research. However, we were welcomed by the surrounding environment and other splendors that seemed to melt away the hardships we had gone through before coming. The view was divine.
And, above all, the space on top of the mountain was filled with the dignified and unique atmosphere of a family that has produced linen for the emperor’s coronation ceremonies. It was a pity that we could not see the interior space, but the house silently told us that not only the interior space but also the entire surrounding environment constitutes the “appearance” of the house. I would like to introduce the Miki family residence in several articles.

【脱炭素の手法・対策をポイント化 北方型住宅ZERO-2】



断熱と気密は「あたたかい家」の基本要件であり北海道ではその技術開発を待望する広範な世論があって、ユーザーと行政・業界の三位一体で住宅革新が進んだ。もっとも大きな促進剤はオイルショックによる暖房コストの急上昇という事態だったと言えるでしょう。待ったなしで北国住宅としての人道的生活防衛本能にスイッチが入った側面が大きいと思える。
そういう広範な世論というものが、今回の脱炭素の目標からは体感しにくい。本来であれば断熱気密化のさらなる高度化がわかりやすいと言えるけれど、たとえば外壁断熱厚を200mmから400mmに重厚化してもそのメリットはコストとの見合いではそれほどではない。むしろごく限られたゲインしか得られにくい。また、わかりやすい「自然エネ活用」の象徴として太陽光発電をシンボル化させても、そもそも積雪時に稼動してくれない。ユーザー感覚からするとそれ相当の価値感が見えにくい。
さらに北国の生活者からすると住宅とクルマには暮らし上の両輪という相関性がある。その判断基準からすると太陽光発電とEVという「推奨される暮らしの未来形」にはどうも疑問が強い。3-4ヶ月の冬期間、命にも関わる移動手段が発電しないエネルギー源に依存するという未来形に納得感がなかなか湧いてこないのだ。公共交通網が不十分で札幌市の面積だけでも東京都全域、神奈川・千葉・埼玉の各県にまたがるほど広大面積の北海道では、クルマ移動は命を支える重要なライフラインだといえる。
太陽光発電についてその設置場所を屋根ではなく、多少の効率低下を受け入れても通年発電可能な壁面設置という「代案」が出てきたことはまだ評価できるかも知れない。ただ壁面設置の場合は周辺のほかの建物と道路付き、敷地環境の未来予測まで自己責任判断とならざるを得ない。制度設計の側としても限定付きの推奨に留めざるを得ないと言えるだろう。

こうした背景条件から、制度設計として「ポイント制」を取ることにしたわけです。
【脱炭素化の対策】として以下のような要素を選択しそれぞれ任意に選び取る方向にシフトした。
○更なる断熱性能の強化〜外皮平均熱貫流率UA値を0.20~0.28以下に強化:3pt~5pt
○再生可能エネルギーの活用〜太陽光発電設備の設置:3pt~6pt
・蓄電池設備の設置:5pt
・木質バイオマスの利用:1pt
○地域資源の活用〜道産木材を構造材や内外装材に活用:2pt
これらのポイントを加算して10ポイントでCO2削減1トン分としたのです。選択制としてはわかりやすい指標だと思います。ユーザーと住宅企業の話合いでの脱炭素手法の「見える化」を制度として担保する施策。もちろん多様な気候特性が北海道内でも各地域で違いがあるので、各地域なりの制度の弾力運用・アレンジが可能なようにしている。
さらに2050年段階のゼロエネ・脱炭素については要素技術の進化がどこまで進むのか、未確定な要素が大きく現段階ではそれらの進歩を睨みながら選択の余地を未来の判断に残した。

English version⬇

Points for decarbonization methods and measures Northern-style housing ZERO-2
The system is designed to allow users to select points from decarbonization factors such as further improvement of thermal insulation performance, use of renewable energy, and use of local resources. ・・・・・.

Insulation and airtightness are the basic requirements for a “warm house,” and there was widespread public opinion in Hokkaido that longed for the development of such technologies, which led to housing innovation through the concerted efforts of users, government, and industry. The most significant catalyst was the sharp rise in heating costs due to the oil crisis. It seems to me that the humanitarian instinct to defend life in the north was switched on without having to wait for the oil crisis.
It is difficult to get a sense of this kind of broad public opinion from the current decarbonization goals. Although it would be easy to understand the need for more advanced insulation and airtightness, the benefits of increasing the thickness of exterior wall insulation from 200mm to 400mm, for example, are not so great in relation to the costs involved. In fact, it is difficult to obtain only a very limited gain. Also, even if photovoltaic power generation is symbolized as an easy-to-understand “use of natural energy,” it will not operate in the event of snow accumulation. From the user’s point of view, it is difficult to see the equivalent sense of value.
Furthermore, from the perspective of people living in northern Japan, there is a correlation between housing and cars as two wheels in the wheel of daily life. Based on such criteria, the “recommended future lifestyle” of solar power generation and EVs is highly questionable, and it is difficult to accept the future of relying on a non-electric energy source for transportation during the 3-4 month winter period, which can be life-threatening. In Hokkaido, where the public transportation network is inadequate and the area of Sapporo alone spans the entire metropolis of Tokyo, as well as the prefectures of Kanagawa, Chiba, and Saitama, driving is an important lifeline that can sustain life.
It may be commendable that an “alternative” to roof-mounted solar power generation has emerged, in which solar power can be installed on the walls of buildings all year round, even if the efficiency of the system is slightly reduced. However, in the case of wall-mounted solar power generation, the user must be responsible for the future forecast of the site environment, including the surrounding buildings and roads. The designers of the system have no choice but to make a limited recommendation.

These background conditions led to the decision to take a “point system” as the institutional design.
The following elements were selected as [decarbonization measures] and shifted to the direction of arbitrarily selecting each of them.
Further reinforcement of thermal insulation performance: Raise the UA value of the average heat transfer coefficient to 0.20-0.28 or less: 3pt-5pt
Use of renewable energy – Installation of photovoltaic power generation equipment: 3pt – 6pt
Installation of storage battery facilities: 5pt
Use of woody biomass: 1pt
Utilization of local resources – Use of Hokkaido timber for structural and interior/exterior materials: 2pts
These points were added together to make 10 points equal to a 1-ton reduction in CO2 emissions. This is an easy-to-understand indicator for a selective system. This is a measure to ensure “visualization” of decarbonization methods in discussions between users and housing companies as a system. Of course, diverse climatic characteristics differ from region to region even within Hokkaido, so the system is designed to allow elastic operation and arrangement of the system in each region’s own way.
Furthermore, there are many undetermined factors regarding the progress of elemental technologies for zero-energy and decarbonization in 2050, so at this stage we are leaving room for future decisions while keeping an eye on the progress of these technologies.

【新住宅基準:北方型住宅ZERO-1 & 北海道×工務店Talk】


さて感染症からの社会復元がことしの大きなテーマになって来そうですね。さすがに3年というのは社会交流の困難条件期間が長すぎる。リアルでの意見交換の場が極端に少なくなり、それを埋め合わせるべく動画配信やWEBセミナーなどが行われてきたけれど、どうしても偏りのある情報交換。
一般的に誰かが講演的に情報発信し大勢はそれを「拝聴する」スタイル。時折「なにかご意見はありませんか?」と促しても、遠慮が優先し疑問点スルー。ここがけっこう問題で、話を聞いているだけで「同意」しているわけではないのに進行としては同意を前提として先へ進まざるを得ない。参加者と発信者の「不同意関係」が固定化されて、いつしか参加者は疎外感を持ってしまう。
やはり本来の情報交換は、受発信が交互に自由にやり取りするのが自然なスタイル。いわゆる「懇談」がもっとも大切な情報交換機会。「先生、さっきのお話しで◎◎のところってね、ホントはどうなんですか?」「いや、あれはね、・・・」という意見交換が自由になければ、機会として意味がない。

わたし個人としてこの3年で主要な住宅性能要件での関わりは道庁建築指導課の住宅制度諮問会議に委員としての参加。北海道の住宅施策の方向性論議に加わっていた。2050年カーボンニュートラルを宣言し、2030年段階で温室効果ガスの排出量を2013年度比で46%削減するとした「ゼロカーボン北海道」実現のロードマップ策定目標。そのなかでも家庭用エネルギー部分が全国では15%程度なのに寒冷地北海道は23%にもなる地域性からとくに住宅部門での削減が重要。
北海道は寒冷でまた積雪状況が多様で暖房エネルギーや太陽光発電の効率が全国と大きく異なっていて、国の想定する対策、ZEHの普及が困難というのが地域性特徴。当初事務局からは、ZEH住宅の推進という目標が想定されていたが最初の会合からこのポイントが中心論議にならざるを得ず、結果、実行可能な方策を探る方向性が基調に据えられた。「課題の最先端地域・北海道」。

自然エネの最大活用可能ソースである太陽光発電・屋根設置が11/18-3/28の「降雪期」には発電量がほぼゼロという「地域特性」。北海道のみならず環日本海地域で共通する課題。それをクリアするのに「南面壁面設置」は有効だけれど、市街地では条件実現のハードルは高い。建築基準などにこういう条件を入れるのは事実上不可能。・・・この稿、やはり1回のブログ記事では困難。また、明日以降に触れます。

いずれにせよ、地域総体として脱炭素を進めるには制度設計として現場の作り手との協働実現が最重要。仏を作っても魂を入れなければ公益は実現できない。そういう趣旨からさまざまな人の努力があって2月3日に「対話機会」がつくられる。北海道住宅の若手の作り手の声を反映させるオープンな機会。そしてそれをZOOMを通して一般にも公開する運びになった。詳細はいちばん上の図表をご覧ください。参加申込みはこちら。従来のWEB活用の意見交換形式を突破するような活発な論議を期待したいです。むしろこういう機会実現こそが北海道の本当の底力なのかも知れません。

English version⬇

New Housing Standard: Northern Style Housing ZERO-1 & Hokkaido x Construction Agency Talk
Hokkaido, an advanced region for high thermal insulation and airtightness, is also an advanced region for decarbonization. How to face the PV adversity with local manufacturing as a whole?

Well, social restoration from infectious diseases is going to be a major theme this year. Three years is indeed too long a period of difficult conditions for social exchange. There are very few opportunities to exchange opinions in real life, and although video distribution and web seminars have been held to compensate for this, the exchange of information is inevitably biased.
Generally, someone delivers a lecture and many people “listen” to the lecture. Occasionally, I would ask, “Do you have any opinions? but the participants are too reserved and do not ask any questions. This is quite problematic, as the participants are only listening and do not “agree” with what is being said, yet they are forced to proceed on the assumption that they agree with what is being said. The “disagreement” between the participants and the sender is fixed, and before long, the participants feel alienated.
The natural style of information exchange is for the sender and receiver to take turns exchanging information freely. The most important opportunity for information exchange is the so-called “discussion. The most important opportunity for exchange of information is the so-called “discussion. If there is no free exchange of opinions, it is meaningless as an opportunity to exchange information.

My personal involvement in housing performance requirements over the past three years has been as a member of the Hokkaido Government Building Guidance Division’s Housing System Advisory Council, where I participated in discussions on the direction of Hokkaido’s housing policy. I was involved in discussions on the direction of Hokkaido’s housing policy, which aims to declare Hokkaido carbon neutral by 2050 and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 46% from the fiscal 2013 level by 2030. The reduction in the residential sector is particularly important because Hokkaido, a cold region, has a 23% residential energy consumption rate, compared to only 15% for the rest of Japan.
Hokkaido’s cold climate and varied snowfall conditions make the efficiency of heating energy and photovoltaic power generation very different from that of the rest of Japan, making it difficult to implement the measures envisioned by the government and spread ZEH in the region. Initially, the secretariat envisioned a goal of promoting ZEH homes. From the first meeting, this point had to be the main topic of discussion, and the direction to explore feasible measures was set as the keynote. Hokkaido, a region at the forefront of issues.

The “characteristics of the region” are such that solar power generation and roof installation, the largest possible source of natural energy, must generate almost no electricity during the “snowfall season” from 11/18 to 3/28. Although “installation on the south wall” is effective in clearing this condition, the hurdle to realize this condition is high in an urban area. It is virtually impossible to include such a condition in building standards. This article is still difficult to write in one blog entry. I will mention it again tomorrow or later.

In any case, in order to promote decarbonization in the region as a whole, it is of utmost importance to collaborate with the local builders in designing the system. Even if a Buddha is created, the public interest cannot be realized unless the soul is put into it. It is for this reason that the “Dialogue Opportunity” will be held on February 3, thanks to the efforts of a variety of people. This is an open opportunity to reflect the voices of young makers of Hokkaido housing. And it will be open to the public through ZOOM. For more details, please see the chart at the top.
I look forward to lively discussions that will break through the conventional format of exchanging opinions through the web. In fact, the realization of such opportunities may be Hokkaido’s real underlying strength.

【奈良県御所・高鴨神社「鉱脈」上の発光現象?】


わたしは別にオカルトに興味がある人間ではありません(笑)。ただ最近は奈良県の古都地域、飛鳥とか纏向・桜井とか橿原などの土地の魅力に強く惹かれてきております。たしかに古代からの日本国家の祖型がそこにあって、文書では明確ではないけれど考古的には確実性が高い痕跡に魅了されてきていることは、ブログを見ていただいているみなさんにはご理解いただけることと思います。
そういうなかで数次訪れているのが奈良県御所市鴨神の金剛山東山麓にある神社・高鴨神社。以下社伝から要旨抜粋。
〜弥生中期、鴨族の一部は葛城川岸辺で水稲農耕をはじめ一般に本社を上鴨社、御歳神社を中鴨社、鴨都波神社を下鴨社と呼んだ。このほか鴨一族はひろく全国に分布しその地で鴨族の神を祀った。賀茂(加茂・賀毛)を郡名にするものが安芸・播磨・美濃・三河・佐渡の国にみられる。中でも京都の賀茂大社は有名で本社はそれら賀茂社の総社にあたる。・・・この地は大和の名門豪族・鴨一族発祥の地で本社はその鴨族が守護神として祀った社の一つ。『延喜式』神名帳には「高鴨阿治須岐詫彦根命(たかかもあじすきたかひこねのみこと)神社」とみえ官幣に預かる名神大社。最高社格をもつ神社。〜
御所の街並みは非常に興味深くて参観時、道に迷ってたどりついた神社(笑)。なんですが池越しに美しい社殿のたたずまいを見てすっかりゾッコンになった。その後いろいろなご縁も生まれたりしております。この高鴨神社で上の写真のような「光のスジ」を体感した。拝殿・本殿を参観後、鳥居方向に参道を歩いていてなにげに写真を取ったのですが、このような光線が感じられ写真にもしっかり映り込んでいる。(この写真は別テーマ記事でも使用済み)


神社のHPには以下のような記述。「カモはカミと同源でありカモすという言葉から派生。「気」が放出している様子を表しています。当神社の神域は鉱脈の上にあることも重なり、多くの「気」が出ていることでも有名。夏場に参詣すると涼しく感じられるのはその為。気は身体にたいへん良く、ぜひ神域を巡られて神様の「気」を受け、心身共によみがえられることをお祈り申し上げます。」
この光線が撮影されたのは冬至に近い時期の午後2−3時ころ。参道は本殿・拝殿を背にしてまっすぐ真南に位置する鳥居方向に向かって顕現した。なので季節的に太陽光の自然光線とは思えない。もし「木漏れ日」であれば、写真右側からのスジになるはずなのです。そのような「乱反射光」を生み出すような対象物は周辺には確認できない。わたしはこのHPの文章に書かれている鉱物資源による「発光現象」の科学知見は持っていないので、いまのところ不明、ナゾとなっています。しかし伝承で石見銀山周辺では朝鮮から来た鉄鉱石資源技術者たちがその独特の発光現象をはるかな海上・船から見てから現地を探索し鉱脈を発見したという説を読んだ記憶がある。・・・
なかなか神秘的な気分を感じて面白くワクワクはさせられている(笑)。読者の方でなにか理解の助けになる情報がありましたら、ぜひお知らせください。よろしく。

English version⬇

Luminescence phenomenon over a vein at Takagamo Shrine, Gosho, Nara Prefecture?
This shrine area is located on a mineral vein and is famous for its large amount of “chi” (energy). Is it possible for such mineral resources to react to light? I wonder. I wonder…

I am not a person who is interested in the occult (laugh). However, I have recently been attracted to the ancient capital regions of Nara Prefecture, such as Asuka, Kumamukai, Sakurai, Kashihara, etc. It is true that the ancient ancestors of the Japanese nation existed there. I am sure that the ancient ancestors of the Japanese nation existed there, and I am fascinated by the traces that are not clearly documented but are highly archaeologically certain, as you can understand from my blog.
One such shrine I have visited several times is Takagamo Shrine, located at the eastern foot of Mount Kongo in Kamogami, Gosho City, Nara Prefecture. The following is an excerpt from the shrine’s biography.
〜In the middle of the Yayoi period, a part of the Kamo clan began rice farming along the banks of the Katsuragi River, and generally called the head shrine Kamigamo-sha, the Mitose shrine Nakagamo-sha, and the Kamotonami shrine Shimogamo-sha. In addition, the Kamo clan was widely distributed throughout the country, and the Kamo deities were worshipped at their shrines. The Kamo (Kamo or Kage) clan was also found in the counties of Aki, Harima, Mino, Mikawa, and Sado. Kamo-taisha in Kyoto is the most famous of these, and its headquarters is the head shrine of all Kamo shrines. The head office is one of the shrines enshrined as a guardian deity by the Kamo clan, a prestigious Yamato clan. In the Engishiki, the shrine is named Takakamo Ajisukitakahikone-no-mikoto Shrine, and is a Meishin-taisya (great shrine) under the jurisdiction of the government. The shrine has the highest shrine rank. 〜The town of Gosho is very interesting.
The townscape of the Gosho is very interesting, and when I visited the shrine, I got lost on the way there. I was very interested in the streets of the Gosho, and when I visited the shrine, I got lost on the way there (laugh), but when I saw the beautiful shrine building over the pond, I fell in love with it. Since then, I have been fortunate enough to have many opportunities to visit the shrine. At this Takagamo Shrine, I experienced a “streak of light” like the one in the photo above. After visiting the hall of worship and the main shrine, I casually took a photo as I was walking along the approach to the torii gate. (This photo has already been used in another thematic article)

The shrine’s website has the following description. The word “kamo” is derived from the word “kamosu,” which is the same origin as “kami. It represents the release of chi. The shrine’s sacred area is famous for the large amount of “chi” that is emitted, due in part to its location on top of a vein of ore. This is why it feels cooler when you visit the shrine in the summer. I hope you will visit the shrine to receive God’s “chi” and revive your body and soul.
This ray of light was taken around 2-3 p.m. near the winter solstice. The approach was manifested toward the direction of the torii gate, which is located directly south, with the main shrine and worship hall behind it. So I don’t think it was the natural rays of seasonal sunlight. If it were “sunlight filtering through the trees,” it would have been a swath from the right side of the photo. No object that would produce such “diffuse reflected light” can be identified in the vicinity. I do not have scientific knowledge of the “luminous phenomenon” caused by mineral resources described in the text of this website, so it is unknown and a riddle at present. However, I remember to have read a legend that iron ore resource engineers from Korea saw the unique luminous phenomenon from the sea and ships far from the Iwami Ginzan Silver Mine, and then explored the area and found a vein of ore. It was quite interesting and exciting.
It is quite interesting and exciting to feel a sense of mystery (laugh). If any readers have any information that can help us understand this, please let us know. Thank you in advance.

【冬・寒さがもたらす雪氷美とちょっと危険な造形】



週末は北海道日本海側は風雪が強まるという冬の嵐の予報。いよいよ来るか冬将軍様・・・であります。用心しながら過ごしたいと思いますが、写真はここのところの寒波でのわが家周辺の「冬の景観」です。寒さには独特の美のたたずまいがある。上の写真は発寒川の段差、言ってみれば人工の滝ですが、そこが結氷している様子。だんだんと震え上がるような結氷美を見せてくれるようになる。恐る恐る見るのはやや自虐感があるけれど、寒冷地の人間の密かな楽しみ(笑)。冬でもあったかい家の中と、まっ盛りの冬の寒さがコントラストを暮らしに与えてくれる。その落差が大きいほど、花鳥風月感が深まる・・・。
西行のような詩人が現代の北海道を旅してくれたら、どんな心象風景を謳るか、想像すると面白みがある。やはり高断熱高気密という住環境がほぼ普遍的に獲得されてからは、冬の外部環境を楽しむ余裕が生まれてきて、それなりの体験が熟成してきている。日本人にどんな新・花鳥風月を追加できていくのか、興味を持っている次第。

そういう新・花鳥風月のテーマとして写真のような家と雪氷がもたらすオモシロ風景がある。まぁ、住宅性能的に見ればこれは屋根の断熱が十分ではなくて室内の熱が屋根トタン面にまで漏出し、屋根面で凍結爆裂融雪を繰り返して、結果、屋根端部にずり下がっていく光景。いわゆる「雪庇(せっぴ)」という現象であります。写真は非住居の建物で数日前の撮影ですが、毎年の気温変化・降雪量推移によって千変万化する。屋根の軒先から50-60cm程度張り出している。いまのところ日中最高気温も零下なので、屋根面雪崩は発生していませんが、温度変化によってはそういう危険もあり得る。まだそこまでではないのですが、もうちょっと危険性が高まると警告のコーンが設置されたりする。危険性が「見える化」しているので歩行者のみなさんも充分注意する。寒冷地としての生活常識も存在する。
ただ、わたしの少年期などではこういう雪庇や氷柱などが街中至るところで発生していて、それが当たり前だったから、動物的な危険回避の臨界感覚が育っていたかも知れない。屋根雪崩はだいたい、2−3月の晩冬時期の危険性が高い。とはいえ、冬の期間中こういう軒先付近にはなるべく近づかないようにはすべきでしょう。そういう危険性はあるけれど、一個の造形物と考えるとまことに「冬の風物詩」。ことしの冬のいろいろな気候痕跡が正直に露出しているので、興味深くもある。
さて夜の間にしっかり降ってくれたので、除雪頑張ります(泣)。

English version⬇

Winter, cold weather brings snow and ice beauty and slightly dangerous formations.
A weekend of heavy snowfall. The snowfall was so heavy that my body is screaming from every node. The peak of winter is just around the corner. …

A winter storm is forecast for the weekend, with wind and snow strengthening on the Sea of Japan side of Hokkaido. The winter storm is forecast to intensify wind and snow in the Sea of Japan area of Hokkaido over the weekend. The photo shows the “winter landscape” around our house during the recent cold wave. Cold weather has its own unique beauty. The photo above is a step of the Hassamu River, a man-made waterfall if you will, where the ice is forming. It gradually shows us the beauty of ice formation that makes us shiver, and although it is somewhat self-deprecating to see it with trepidation, it is a secret pleasure for people living in cold regions (laugh). The contrast between the warmth of a house in winter and the coldness of winter at its height provides a contrast to our lives. The greater the difference between the two, the deeper the sense of “kacho-fu-getsu” (flowers, birds, winds, and the moon) becomes.
It is interesting to imagine what a poet like Saigyo would say if he were to travel to Hokkaido today. After all, since the almost universal adoption of a highly insulated and airtight living environment, people have been afforded the luxury of enjoying the external environment in winter, and the experience has matured in its own way. I am interested to see what kind of new “kacho-fu-getsu” (the Japanese traditional seasonal festivals of flowers, birds, and winds) will be added to the Japanese people’s experience of the winter.

One such new Kacho Fugetsu theme is the wacky scenery brought about by the house and snow and ice, as shown in the photo. Well, from a housing performance point of view, this is a scene where the roof insulation is not sufficient and the heat inside leaks out to the tin surface of the roof, causing the snow to freeze, explode, and melt repeatedly on the roof surface, resulting in the snow sliding down to the edge of the roof. This is the so-called “snow eaves” phenomenon. The photo was taken a few days ago on a non-residential building, but it changes drastically depending on annual temperature and snowfall changes. The snow is sticking out about 50-60 cm from the eaves of the roof. At the moment, the maximum daytime temperature is also below zero, so no roof-surface avalanches have occurred, but such a danger is possible depending on temperature changes. It is not to that extent yet, but when the danger increases a little more, warning cones will be installed. Since the danger is “visualized,” pedestrians should be very careful. There is also the common sense of living in a cold region.
However, when I was a boy, such snow cover and icicles were commonplace throughout the city, and I may have developed a critical sense of danger avoidance like an animal. Roof avalanches are usually most dangerous in the late winter months of February and March. Nevertheless, we should try to stay away from such areas near the eaves during the winter months. Despite these dangers, when considered as an artifact, it is truly a “winter wonder”. It is also interesting because it honestly exposes various traces of the winter climate.
Now that it fell during the night, I’m going to work hard to remove the snow.

【メディアの発展と興亡・浮世絵-4 江戸期・房総町家-13】




浮世絵という表現形式を得て、日本の出版文化は実質的に産声を上げた。それまでの日本美術とは宗教寺院や支配層への奉仕が主たる生存形式であって、狩野派などの絵画制作集団はときの権力機構などに寄生してその維持を図ってきた存在だった。狩野派は権力者の城郭襖絵などの「公共建築需要」を受注落札する専門的集団であって一種の美術版ゼネコン的存在だったと思える。また「鎌倉殿の13人」でも登場した運慶はあのように権力に取り入ることで創作の機会を得てきていた。わたしがいちばん好きな日本画「風神雷神図」俵屋宗達作品は京都の名刹寺院からの注文製作だった。そのようなひとつの伝統的ジャンルとして「洛中洛外図屏風絵」があって、国宝に指定されているのが舟木本・岩佐又兵衛筆作品。かれがこのジャンルの集大成作品を生み出した後、活躍の舞台を京都から江戸に移して、浮世絵文化への橋渡し役を果たしたと言われている。
日本絵画は京都が主流だった時代には画題テーマは宗教であったり、王朝文学の背景画であったり、障壁画などであったものが、江戸では浮世絵文化の勃興とともに画題がビッグバンして、市井の名所図会・役者絵・美人画と直接的な大衆の興味分野にシフトしていった。まさに「芸術の大衆化」だった。
個人的な思いかも知れないけれど芸術家というのは日本では余技として描いた作品の方が多くの人に愛されているのではないだろうか。わたしは俵屋宗達と、岩佐又兵衛に強く惹かれているけれど、どうも専業画家というよりも別に生計を立てていて、画業は余技というスタイルが、むしろ民衆のこころには響くなにごとかがあるのではないかと思っている。俵屋宗達は扇の専門店を経営していたと言われる。キャンバスに向かう心理に於いて自由さがあって、制作するこころに狭量を感じないということではないか。

今日、メディアは大きな転換期に差し掛かっている。WEBによる既存メディアの革新は留まるところを知らないけれど、一方で個人の価値感世界だけを押しつけるような動画などは早くも壁に突き当たり始めてきている。いわゆるYouTuberの停滞・行き詰まりが指摘されてきている。ある特定個人の言説だけを信奉し依存するというのではまるで新興宗教のようでそれはやはり危険性が高い。公平性・客観性という価値感はやはり不可欠な情報要素なのだと思う。メディアは情報の公平な「広場」機能であるべきで、最終的判断は情報の受けてが自己判断できるその材料を提供するのが本来の使命だろう。
そんな時代の中で、浮世絵という日本社会が経験してきたニューメディアの興亡ぶりから今日学ぶべきことも多いのではないか。歴史からいろいろな真実を汲み取って活かしていく必要があるのでしょう。

English version⬇

The Development and Rise and Fall of the Media, Ukiyoe-4: Edo Period, Boso Machiya-13
Today’s media are in a state of confusion. There are many things to be learned from the historical transition of Ukiyo-e with an open mind. …

With the acquisition of ukiyoe as a form of expression, Japan’s publishing culture was practically born. Until then, Japanese art had mainly existed as a service to religious temples and the ruling class, and painting groups such as the Kano school were parasites on the power structure of the time in order to maintain their existence. The Kano school was a group that specialized in bidding for “public building needs,” such as sliding door paintings of castles for powerful people, and it seems to have been a kind of art version of a general contractor. Unkei, who also appeared in “The Thirteen of Kamakura-dono,” had the opportunity to create works by taking advantage of the power of the authorities. My favorite Japanese painting, “The Wind and Thunder Gods,” by Sotatsu Tawaraya, was commissioned by a famous temple in Kyoto. One such traditional genre is “Rakuchu Rakugai-zu Byobu-e,” and the Funaki version, by Iwasa Matabei, is designated a national treasure. After he created the culmination of this genre, he moved the stage of his activities from Kyoto to Edo, where he is said to have served as a bridge to the Ukiyoe culture.
In the Kyoto period when Japanese painting was the mainstream, the themes of paintings were religion, backgrounds of imperial literature, and barrier paintings, etc. In Edo, however, with the emergence of the ukiyo-e culture, the themes of paintings were in a big bang and shifted directly to areas of popular interest, such as cityscapes, portraits of actors and beauties, etc. It was truly a “popularization of art. It was truly the “popularization of art.
It may be my personal opinion, but I think that artists in Japan are more loved for the works they created as an afterthought. I am strongly attracted to Sotatsu Tawaraya and Matabei Iwasa, but I think that the style of artists who earn their living separately and do painting as an afterthought rather than as full-time painters may have something that resonates with the public. Tawaraya Sotatsu is said to have operated a store specializing in fans. I think that this indicates that there is a freedom in the mind that goes into the canvas, and that there is no sense of narrowness in the mind of the creator.

Today, the media is approaching a major turning point, and while there is no end in sight to the innovation of existing media via the Web, videos and other media that impose only personal values are already beginning to hit a wall. The so-called “YouTuber” has reached a plateau and a dead end. Belief in and dependence on a particular individual’s discourse is like a new religion, which is also highly dangerous. I believe that the values of fairness and objectivity are indispensable elements of information. The media should function as an impartial “forum” for information, and its original mission should be to provide information that enables the recipient of information to make a final judgment on his or her own.
In such an era, there are many lessons to be learned from the rise and fall of new media such as Ukiyo-e, which Japanese society has experienced. It is probably necessary to take various truths from history and make use of them.

【大衆メディア革命と浮世絵-3 江戸期・房総町家-12】



出版という仕事にわたしは人生時間をほぼ費やしてきました。どうしてなのか?小学校に上がるかどうかのころに日本のテレビ放送が始まって、力道山のプロレスが札幌大通公園の街頭テレビで放送し始めた。父に連れられてそれを1−2度は見たのだろうか。映像の迫力とその臨場感に熱狂した父はさっそく2軒となりの電気屋さんに頼んですぐにテレビを購入した。以来、映像文化のたぶん最初期受容世代としてメディアというものに惑溺してきた。また街中の小学校だったので、ときどきNHK地方局の「子ども参加番組」に出演することもあった。メディアというものが身近な存在であって将来そういう仕事をと夢想していたのだろうか。
その後、結局メディアというのは経済的に広告事業の一環であることが腑に落ちて、広告業でその成立の根源的な部分について学習し経験を積んだ。結果として「カラー写真がたっぷり表現された」地域メディアというものを創造する事業に邁進してきた。そういう自分の体験と照らし合わせたとき、日本史の中でこの江戸期の「浮世絵」がもたらした大衆芸術の世界はまぶしい民族的先行事例として自分の中で光を放っていた。これは想像するしかないけれど、江戸期の人びとにとって手頃な価格で入手できたカラー印刷物の即物性は無上の存在だっただろう。浮世絵の醸し出す想像力世界に触れることで、全国旅行ブームというのが江戸期を通じて盛んになっていった事実。また見世物芝居のスターたちがブロマイドのように表現された。さらに女性美というものがはじめて「メディア化」していった。結果として人間の本然を刺激する自由な大衆の娯楽が驚異的な盛り上がりを見せた。江戸期の浮世絵は名所・役者絵・美人画というジャンルを開拓したけれど、わたしは地域の「いい家」という空間の奥行きを表現したいと祈念している。「いごこちの見える化」というテーマか。


「房総のむら」でそれが町家の一典型として建築的に明示されていたことは思ってもいなかった奇跡的な遭遇。「そうか具体的にはこういうしつらいの空間から浮世絵は生産されていったのか」という驚異の体験なのです。ちょうど自分がテレビ世代として映像文化に惑溺したように、江戸期の人びとは浮世絵からのわかりやすいカルチャーショックに惑溺していたのだと思う。日本社会の大衆文化にとってこうした変化はまさに革命だったと思える。
その基礎になったのが、絵師と彫り師・刷り師という技術者たち。絵師については芸術家としての名声がはるかな後代まで名を残すけれど、しかしそのベースは彫り師・刷り師の技術開発がすべての根源だっただろう。基盤は江戸期の大衆芸術を支えた映像表現の知の結晶がもたらしたもの。その努力の痕跡を見て、はるかに触発され続けている自分がいる。

English version⬇

Ukiyo-e and the Popular Media Revolution – 3: Edo Period, Boso Machiya – 12
For those of us who experienced the postwar TV cultural revolution, the rise of popular color painting and publishing in the Edo period seems to us to be a dazzling trace of our ancestors. …

I have spent most of my life in the publishing business. Why? When I was about to enter elementary school, Japanese TV broadcasting started and Rikidozan’s wrestling began to be broadcast on street TV in Sapporo Odori Park. My father took me to see it once or twice. My father was so enthralled by the power and realism of the images that he immediately asked an electronics store two doors down to buy a TV set. Since then, as one of the first generations to be exposed to the visual culture, I have been absorbed in the media. Since it was an elementary school in the city, I sometimes appeared in “children’s participation programs” on NHK’s local station. Perhaps I was so familiar with the media that I dreamed of working in such a field in the future.
Later, it became clear to me that the media was economically part of the advertising business, and I learned and gained experience in the fundamental aspects of its formation in the advertising business. As a result, I have been working hard to create local media that are “richly illustrated with color photographs. In light of my own experience, the world of popular art brought about by ukiyo-e in the Edo period shone in my mind as a dazzling national precedent in Japanese history. One can only imagine what the immediacy of affordable color prints must have been like for the people of the Edo period. The fact is that the nationwide travel boom that was triggered by exposure to the imaginative world of ukiyo-e prints flourished throughout the Edo period. The stars of freak shows were represented in the form of bromides. In addition, female beauty was “mediatized” for the first time. As a result, the free entertainment of the masses, which stimulated human nature, enjoyed a phenomenal rise. Ukiyo-e of the Edo period pioneered the genres of famous places, portrayals of actors, and paintings of beautiful women, and I wish to express the depth of the space of “good houses” in the region. The theme of “visualization of comfort”?

It was a miraculous encounter that I had never expected to see it manifested architecturally as a typical “machiya” (townhouse) in the village of Boso. It was a marvelous experience for me to realize that Ukiyo-e was produced from this kind of space. Just as I was dazzled by visual culture as a member of the television generation, I believe that the people of the Edo period were dazzled by the easy-to-understand culture shock from Ukiyo-e. I believe that these changes were truly revolutionary for the popular culture of Japanese society.
The basis for this change was the painter and the engraver/printer. Although painters will remain famous as artists until far into the future, I strongly believe that the development of engraving and printing techniques was the basis for all of these changes. The foundation for this was the crystallization of the knowledge of visual expression that supported popular art in the Edo period. Seeing the traces of these efforts, I find myself continually inspired.

【そば1杯値段で流通・浮世絵-2 江戸期・房総町家-11】



 江戸末期にヨーロッパとの交易が開始されたとき、輸出された陶器などの「緩衝材」として浮世絵の印刷失敗品が使われ、それを受け取った西洋人が緩衝材・浮世絵のカラー印刷のレベルの高さに驚かされたことをきのう書いた。それくらい当時のニッポン社会では日常的な「大衆芸術」であったことそのものに西洋は驚愕したのだという。
では当時の社会ではどれくらいで浮世絵は流通していたのかと探るとなんと「そば1杯」の値段とほぼ同価格帯だったという。現代のそばの値段、おおむね4-500円から高くても1,000円はしない。わたしは東京博物館で浮世絵展があったときに手刷りの限定100枚っていうのを1枚30,000円くらいで購入した記憶がある。(1枚目の写真)あれは「暴利」だったのかと唖然とした(笑)。まぁ冗談。江戸期のように大衆が支持して大量販売の事業構造が確立した時代とは違って、専門職としての「摺り師」さんの存在を支える市場構造が現代にはない。そういう時代に当時と遜色のない仕上げ技術で丹念に仕上げる職人技に惚れ惚れとしたものだ。
しかしそば1杯の値段でこういうカラー印刷の芸術を楽しめていたというのは、まことに素晴らしい。国の豊かさというのはいろいろな測り方があると思うけれど、キビシイ大衆の選別眼というふるいに掛けられた上で愛されてきた価値感には深く頷かされる。日本は「民主的」な社会の素地が根強いとわたしには思えるのですが、世界のなかでもここまで大衆芸術がリスペクトされる社会というのはすごい。西洋人が驚いたことの実質にこういう要素が強かったのではないか。「ひょっとするとこの国の民は民主主義ということを深く理解しているのはないか?」と。

さてそういう浮世絵の題材として、全国旅行ブームを支えた「名所図会」と同時に「美人画」というジャンルが大きかったとされる。とくに江戸は常に適齢期男性が過剰な町であり、見返り美人とかたくさんの日本女性の美が追究された。で、判で押したように「うりざね顔」の美人画が好まれたようだ。現代に残っている美人画では圧倒的に多数派。以前ブログで縄文の美人、弥生の美人というような分析を試みたけれど、そこではそれほど「うりざね」への固執は見られなかった。京美人という王朝美学でもそう感じられず、むしろ「ふっくら」系への支持が強いと感じられる。そういう変遷を経て江戸期の日本的な美感としてこの「うりざね顔」はDNA的に響いてくる。江戸期の大衆芸術では民のコアを探らなければ「売れない」というキビシイ選別眼にさらされ、その結果選び取られた美感なのだろうか。さらにファッションの要素でも浮世絵には「当世ぶり」表現が競われたに違いない。現代の芸能ビジネスが行っているような切磋琢磨、熾烈な競争原理がそこに反映もしていると思う。

English version⬇

Ukiyoe: Distribution at the Price of a Cup of Soba, Ukiyoe-2: Edo Period, Boso Machiya-11
Ukiyo-e is an art form of mass printing that is supported by the masses. The strict selection of the common people in the Edo period nurtured the Japanese publishing culture. …

When trade with Europe began at the end of the Edo period (1603-1868), Ukiyo-e prints were used as “buffer materials” for exported ceramics, etc. I wrote yesterday that Westerners were surprised at the high level of color printing of Ukiyo-e as buffer materials. The West was astonished at the fact that Ukiyo-e was such an everyday “popular art” in Japanese society at that time.
I asked how much Ukiyo-e were sold in those days, and found that the price was almost the same as the price of a bowl of soba (buckwheat noodles). The price of a bowl of soba today is generally 4-500 yen, or at most not more than 1,000 yen. I remember buying a limited edition of 100 hand-printed ukiyo-e prints for about 30,000 yen each when the Tokyo Museum held an exhibition of ukiyo-e prints (first photo). (The first photo) I was stunned to think that it was a “wild profit” (laugh). Well, just kidding. Unlike the Edo period, when the business structure of mass sales was established with the support of the masses, today there is no market structure to support the existence of “printers” as a profession. I was fascinated by the craftsmanship of the “surishi” who painstakingly finished their work with finishing techniques that were on par with those of that era.
It is truly wonderful that people were able to enjoy this kind of color printing art for the price of a bowl of soba (buckwheat noodles). There are many ways to measure a country’s wealth, but I can’t help but nod in agreement with the sense of value that has been preserved and loved by a selective and demanding public. I believe that Japan has a strong foundation of a “democratic” society, and it is amazing to see a society in which popular art is respected so much, even in the world. I think this is one of the reasons why Westerners were so surprised. I think that the people of this country have a deep understanding of democracy. And.

The subjects of ukiyoe include “Meisho Zue” (famous places), which supported the nationwide travel boom, and at the same time, “Bijin-ga” (portraits of beautiful women), which was a major genre. Especially in Edo, where there was always an overabundance of men of the right age, many Japanese women’s beauties were pursued, such as the beauty of a “kirika-bijin” or “turned-around beauty. As a result, it seems that “urizane-faced” bijinga were favored, as if by seal of approval. This is by far the majority of beauty paintings that remain today. In a previous blog entry, I attempted to analyze Jomon beauties and Yayoi beauties, but I did not find much adherence to the “urizane” face. Even the dynastic aesthetic of the Kyo-bijin, or Kyoto beauties, did not seem to be so obsessed with the “plump” type. After such a transition, the “urizane face” resonated in the DNA of the Edo period as a Japanese aesthetic. In the popular arts of the Edo period, artists had to be selective in order to find the core of the populace or they would not sell well. In addition, ukiyo-e must have competed with the fashion element for “zeitgeist” expression. I believe that this reflects the principle of friendly competition and fierce rivalry that exists in the entertainment business today.