本文へジャンプ

【コミュニケーション画像ツールなどの現代的進化】



写真はなにげに「どんな絵や筆文字が書いてあるのか」と
ふと疑問に感じていた至近の神社の拝殿天井の格天井画の様子。
わたしはブログを書き続けてきていますが、
日々のことがらを表現するのに、文章と並んで
画像についていろいろにテックを追究するようになる。
まぁ仕事柄もあり住宅・建築についてのことが多いので
文字だけでは当然伝えきれない領域があって、
直感的な画像の「編集」ということに注目するようになるのは自然。

そういう習慣化があるとブログのような軽いデータでも十分な場合には
iPhoneで「いつでもどこでも」気軽に写真撮影して
あとで時間ができたときに画像を確認しながら思索テーマを絞り込み
そのテーマに沿って「画像編集」していくことになります。
で、当然、DTPが仕事領域なのでいくつか専門的なソフトを利用し、
それらを連携して利用することでテックを向上させることが可能になる。
・・・とは言ってもまことにお恥ずかしい未熟さですが(泣)
ただ、ブログのようなテーマ領域ではこういった利便性はありがたい。
前記の天井画については「そのうちに画像編集すれば理解が進む」と
あまり考えることもなく「撮りっぱなし」にしていたのですね。
下の写真が実際に撮影した状況なのですが、
今回時間があったので上の写真のように編集した次第。
「おお、花鳥風月の大和絵と立派な書での構成か!」と確認。
画像の「正確性」という点では詰めなければならない部分があるけれど、
およその「大意」としては十分な把握が可能。
ブログ表現のような「日記的書き留め機能」としてはこの程度でいい。
このような「画像編集」を起点にした思索というのは、
いかにも現代的テクノロジーによって得られた表現領域ではないか。

わたしはブログって兼行法師の「徒然草」なのではないかと思っています。
日本人の多くが文字をツールとして完全利用できるようになったのは、
歴史的にそう古い時代とは言えない。
そして画像と文章がコラボして一体の表現世界を構成できるようになったのも
日本で言えば絵巻物みたいな表現形式が初源なのでしょう。
そういう表現ツールが始められてからまだ数百年程度。
そこから超絶の進化を遂げてわたしたちはSNSというような小衆同士での
自立的なコミュニケーション手段まで得られるようになってきた。
そして兼行法師さんは画像を持たなかったのに、
わたしたちはより自由度の高い画像表現まで取得できている。
まことに面白い時代を生きていると思っています。

English version⬇

[Modern evolution of communication imaging tools, etc.
Expressions that were difficult to spread in the age of Kenkou-hoji can now be edited by the general public. The super expansion of communication. …

The photo shows the ceiling painting of a nearby Shinto shrine, which I had been casually wondering what kind of pictures and brush strokes were written on it.
I have been writing a blog for some time now, and I have been wondering what kind of pictures and brush strokes are written on the ceiling of a nearby shrine.
I have been writing a blog for a long time.
I have been writing a blog for a long time, and I have been pursuing various techniques for images as well as writing to express my daily life.
I have been writing a blog for a long time, and I have been exploring various techniques for images as well as writing to express my daily life.
Well, because of the nature of my work, I often write about housing and architecture.
I naturally cannot convey the message through text alone, so I started
It is natural for me to pay attention to intuitive image editing.

When such a habitual practice is established, it is easy to take photos “anywhere, anytime” with an iPhone when light data such as a blog is sufficient.
I can easily take pictures with my iPhone “anytime, anywhere” and
When you have time later, you can check the images and narrow down the theme for contemplation.
and then “edit” the images according to that theme.
Naturally, since DTP is my area of work, I use a number of specialized software packages.
By using them in conjunction with each other, it is possible to improve the tech.
I’m still a bit embarrassed by my inexperience, though.
However, I appreciate this kind of convenience in such a faintly thematic area as blogging.
As for the aforementioned ceiling painting, I thought, “I will understand it better if I edit the image in due time.
You left the picture “as is” without thinking much about it.
The photo below shows the actual situation.
I finally had a little time to edit the picture, so I edited it to look like the picture above.
I was able to confirm that “Oh, it’s composed of Yamato-e paintings of flowers, birds, winds, and the moon, and splendid calligraphy! I confirmed it.
Although there are some parts that need to be corrected in terms of the “accuracy” of the image, it is enough for the approximate “general idea.
but I could grasp the general meaning of the image.
This is enough for a “diary-like writing function” like a blog expression.
This kind of “image editing” is a kind of contemplation that is a result of modern technology.
This kind of “image-editing” is an area of expression that has been made possible by modern technology.
I think that blogging is like “Tsurezuregusa” by Kanegyo Hoshi.

It is not so long ago in history that most Japanese people were able to fully utilize the written word as a tool.
It is not so old historically.
And it is not so long ago that images and texts came to be able to collaborate to form a single world of expression.
In Japan, the first source of this type of expression is probably the emakimono.
It has only been a few hundred years since these tools of expression began.
From there, we have evolved to the point where we now have independent means of communication among small groups of people, such as SNS.
We have even come to have independent means of communication among small groups of people, such as social networking.
And while Mr. Kanegyo had no images, we have more freedom to express ourselves through the use of images.
We have even been able to acquire a higher degree of freedom in image expression.
I think we are living in a very interesting era.

【ライラック&ハシドイ 百花繚乱5月の札幌】




サクラの季節が終わったあと、ちょっとするとライラックが咲き誇る札幌。
ちょうど今週末からは「ライラック祭り」の季節。
ことしはついに3年ぶりのリアル開催という喜ばしい知らせ。
フランス名で「リラ」というこの花は独特の芳香で知られ、
初夏の北海道が「天国に一番近い」と思われる重要な「香り」要素。
さわやかな青空、ここちよい空気感にさらに彩りを与えてくれる。
日本に初めてライラックが持ち込まれたのは1879年とされる。
函館市のイギリス領事であったリチャード・ユースデンが
「病気の人が病院を必要なように健康人には休憩の場が必要だ」と訴え、
函館公園が完成。その時ユースデン夫人はイギリスから西洋クルミとライラックの苗を
取り寄せ植栽したのが始まりとされる。
一方札幌市ではスミス女学校(現・北星学園女子中学高等学校)の創設者である、
サラ・C・スミスが1890年にアメリカに一時帰国した際に、
自分の庭のライラックの苗を札幌に持ち込んだのが始まりとのこと。
日本の文化の中で北海道、札幌が独特のロマンチズムを感じさせるのは、
このような坂の上の雲の欧米文化を日本が受け入れて
しかもそのことに大きな民族レベルでの好感を寄せていたことが大きい。
札幌の街がこのような文化性の象徴として赤煉瓦庁舎や時計台建築とともに、
ライラックを街のシンボルとしてきたことは象徴的だと思える。
この開花時期はほかの花々もほぼ一斉に開花時期を迎えて
さまざまな芳香で街中が魅惑的な空間と化す。まさに天国・・・。

一方でこれも札幌の街路樹としてライラックに似た白い花を咲かせる
「ハシドイ」は日本の高地性の在来樹木。
初夏になるとライラックのように小さな花が集まった花房をつけ、とてもいい香り。
ライラックに似た品のいい芳香で夕方になると強くなる。樹高は10メートルほど。
英名の通称は”Japanese Lilac Tree” だそうで日本や朝鮮半島に自生している。
モクセイ科のライラックの仲間で、アメリカには北大で教鞭を執ったクラーク博士が
ハシドイの種子を日本から持ち帰っているという。
こういった経緯からはやはり日本社会と欧米社会の文化のブレンドを
つよく意識させてくれる。
本ブログとしてはほかの花々を代表させてツツジを添えました(笑)。
ピンクと白の木の花への対照としてはやはり低灌木のツツジがいいかと。

わたしは明治以降、欧米との文化ブレンドに取り組んだ北海道の
短い歴史だけれど、日本にとって重要な文化風土に強く愛着を持っています。
そして欧米的価値感とはやはりその基本は民主主義なのだろうと思います。
3年ぶりライラック祭り開催は現代世界へのメッセージになるのかも。

English version⬇

Lilacs & Hashidoi Like a gathering of many beautiful women in Sapporo
Sapporo, Hokkaido, a city that practiced cultural fusion with Europe and America. The colors of the season that is “closest to heaven”. The cultural power to exterminate foolish dictatorial tyranny. …

After the cherry blossom season is over, lilacs will be in full bloom in Sapporo in a short while.
This weekend is the season of the “Lilac Festival.
This year, the festival will finally be held for the first time in three years.
This flower, called “lilac” in France, is known for its unique fragrance.
It is an important “fragrance” element that makes Hokkaido in early summer the “closest to heaven.
It adds even more color to the crisp blue sky and pleasant air.
Lilacs were first brought to Japan in 1879.
Richard Eusden, the British consul in Hakodate, was the first to introduce lilacs to Japan.
Richard Eusden, the British consul in Hakodate, argued that “healthy people need a place to rest, just as sick people need hospitals,” and Hakodate Park was completed.
Hakodate Park was completed. At that time, Mrs. Yousden brought walnut and lilac seedlings from England and planted them.
The park is said to have begun when Mrs. Eusden imported walnut and lilac seedlings from England and planted them in the park.
Meanwhile, in Sapporo, Sarah C. Smith, founder of the Smith School for Girls (now Hokusei Gakuen Girls’ Junior and Senior High School), was born in 1890.
Sarah C. Smith, the founder of Smith School for Girls (now Hokusei Gakuen Girls’ Junior and Senior High School)
She brought lilac seedlings from her garden to Sapporo.
In Japanese culture, Hokkaido and Sapporo have a distinct romanticism.
Japan’s acceptance of this kind of cloud-on-the-slope Western culture.
The city of Sapporo is a place where this culture is still alive and well.
The city of Sapporo has been a symbol of this culture, with the red-brick government office building and clock tower, and the lilac as the city symbol.
The fact that the city of Sapporo has made the lilac the symbol of the city, along with the red-brick government office building and the clock tower, is symbolic of this cultural identity.
During this blooming season, other flowers are also in bloom at the same time, and the city is filled with various fragrances.
The city is transformed into an enchanting space with a variety of fragrances. It is truly heaven.

On the other hand, the “hashidoi,” which blooms white flowers similar to lilacs, is also a street tree in Sapporo.
Hashidoi is a native tree of Japan’s highlands.
In early summer, it produces clusters of small flowers like lilacs and has a very nice fragrance.
The fragrance is elegant, similar to that of lilacs, and becomes stronger in the evening. The tree is about 10 meters tall.
Its common name in English is “Japanese Lilac Tree,” and it grows wild in Japan and the Korean Peninsula.
It is a member of the lilac family of the Moraceae, and Dr. Clark, who taught at Hokkaido University in the U.S., has been a professor of Japanese Lilac at the University of California, Berkeley.
Dr. Clark, who taught at Hokkaido University, is said to have brought seeds of the hashidoi back from Japan.
This is a good example of the blending of Japanese and Western cultures.
This is a good example of the blending of the cultures of Japanese and Western societies.
For this blog, I have included azaleas to represent other flowers (smile).
I think azaleas, which are low shrubs, are a good contrast to the pink and white flowers of trees.

I am interested in the history of Hokkaido’s efforts since the Meiji era to blend its culture with that of Europe and America.
I have a strong attachment to the cultural climate of Hokkaido, which has a short history but is important to Japan.
And I believe that the basis of the Western sense of values is democracy.
The holding of the Lilac Festival for the first time in three years may be a message to the modern world.

【紀州の国土地政学〜奈良・和歌山探訪-33】



紀州という北海道在住者からすると現代でもあまり縁の近くない地域。
たまたま家系伝承である起点になっている経緯に導かれて深掘りしてきました。
そのテーマについては非常にか細い手掛かり段階で
これからできるだけ事実の痕跡を確認していきたいと思います。
とくに2枚目の写真の藤堂高虎、桑山重晴の時代がキーポイントかと。
しかしそのようなピンポイント探索でも調査範囲は広く深くする必要がある。
必然的に紀州の総体についてあれこれの角度から探っていく考えです。
過程ではわかやま城歴史館で学芸員の方とお話しできるなど
深掘りの手掛かりはさまざまに得られた次第。
現代は過去のどの時代よりもWEBの発達などでピンポイント探索が可能。
たかだか400年ちょっと前の事実なのでそれくらいの時間経過は
これから以降の時代には相当に全体把握が可能になると思われます。
人間社会はリレーランニングという進化構造。
いま生きている人間は、その探索に全力を尽くすことで
これから先の人々に知恵を伝承していくことができる。

紀州の「地政学」という視点はあまり考えてこなかったし、
断片的理解だったのですが、この説明図で巨視的な視点に気付かされた。
江戸期になぜ紀州に御三家が置かれたのかがわかるし、
また近畿圏にとって紀州の存在もよく見える図面。
奈良県の山岳地帯を含めて考えると紀州は近畿の巨大な自然資産。
最南端にちかい熊野が占めている宗教的位置が象徴的。
そしてこの地図からは伊勢神宮までそのコントロール下に置いている。
朝廷が歴世尊崇してきた地域を支配下にしている。
そして紀州徳川家の版図として尾張徳川家と連携して
京大阪の大人口集積地をコントロールする地政学的位置。
またその尾張の先には徳川氏の本願の地である静岡があって
江戸を望んでいるといえる。家康の列島支配権力構造の中では
こういった環太平洋型の戦略構造が存在したように思われる。
家康は頼朝を先達として尊崇したとされるけれど、
鎌倉と江戸とを繋ぐ「統治原理」のような戦略性を感じる。
そういうなかで中心都市の和歌山は関西圏の瀬戸内海海運に参加するとともに、
ここを起点としての紀伊水道〜太平洋航路の重要拠点。
江戸期の紀伊国屋文左衛門が江戸の大火後、再建資材として木材出荷で
巨利を得たというのは、この「太平洋航路」利用という側面が
大きかったのだろうと思われる。
江戸期前までは瀬戸内海海運が大動脈であり、
比較的に波の穏やかな日本海海運によって北海道も含めた物流ネットワークが
日本社会の「オモテ」だったのだろう。
さて、次回以降の探索に向けて地道にできることを継続したい。

English version⬇

Kishu’s Geopolitics: Exploring Nara and Wakayama – 33
Ieyasu’s strategy to dominate the Pacific Belt region of Kishu. The contrast between the traditional Japanese social system centered on trade on the Seto Inland Sea and the Sea of Japan. …

Kishu, a region that even today is not so closely related to Hokkaido from the perspective of a Hokkaido resident.
I have been digging deeper, guided by the history that happens to be the starting point of a family tradition.
We are still at the stage of very faint clues on the subject.
I would like to confirm the traces of facts as much as possible from now on.
In particular, the period of Takatora Todo and Shigeharu Kuwayama in the second photo may be the key point.
However, even in such a pinpoint search, the scope of investigation needs to be broad and deep.
Inevitably, we would like to explore Kishu as a whole from various angles.
In the process, I could talk with the curator at Wakayama Castle History Museum, etc.
I was able to get various clues to dig deeper.
Today, the development of the Internet and other means has made it possible to do more pinpoint searches than at any other time in the past.
The fact that it is only a little more than 400 years old means that the passage of time is
It will be possible to grasp the whole picture in the future.
Human society is an evolutionary structure of relay running.
People who are alive today will do their utmost to search for it.
We can pass on our wisdom to those who will come after us in the future.

I had not given much thought to the “geopolitical” perspective of Kishu, and
It was a fragmented understanding, but this illustration made me realize the macroscopic viewpoint.
I now understand why the Gosanke were located in Kishu during the Edo period.
The drawing also clearly shows the existence of Kishu for the Kinki region.
Kishu, including the mountainous areas of Nara Prefecture, is a huge natural asset of the Kinki region.
The religious position of Kumano, which is near the southernmost point, is symbolic.
The map also shows Ise Shrine under its control.
The Imperial Court has controlled the area that has been revered and respected for generations.
And as a version of the Kishu Tokugawa family, in cooperation with the Owari Tokugawa family, they control a large population center in Kyoto and Osaka.
The geopolitical position to control the large population center of Kyoto-Osaka.
The Owari region is located in Shizuoka, which is the main desire of the Tokugawa clan.
Edo, the capital of the Tokugawa clan. In Ieyasu’s power structure to control the archipelago
Ieyasu’s power structure for controlling the archipelago seems to have been a Pacific Rim-type strategic structure.
Ieyasu is said to have respected Yoritomo as his predecessor.
I feel the strategic nature of the “ruling principle” that connects Kamakura and Edo.
In this context, Wakayama, the central city, participated in the Seto Inland Sea shipping of the Kansai region.
Wakayama is an important base for shipping routes between the Kii Channel and the Pacific Ocean, and also participates in the Seto Inland Sea shipping routes in the Kansai region.
It is said that Kinokuniya Bunzaemon in the Edo period earned a huge profit by shipping lumber as materials for rebuilding after the Great Fire of Edo.
The fact that Kinokuniya Bunzaemon earned a huge profit by shipping lumber as materials for rebuilding after the Great Fire of Edo is thought to have been due in large part to the use of the Pacific Ocean route.
The fact that Kinokuniya Bunzaemon made a huge profit by shipping lumber to rebuild after the Great Fire of Edo (1603-1868) is thought to have been due in large part to the use of the Pacific Ocean route.
Until the Edo period, the Seto Inland Sea was the main artery of shipping.
The Japan Sea, with its relatively calm seas, provided a logistics network that included Hokkaido.
The Japan Sea shipping network, which included Hokkaido, was the “Omote” of Japanese society.
Now, we would like to continue what we can do steadily for the next and subsequent explorations.

【天守閣デザインの検討図面〜奈良・和歌山探訪-32】




城郭というのは戦国末期から江戸時代に非常に多く建築された。
地形のそれぞれの特徴を把握したり、軍事的な側面からの立地選択など、
いかにも「用」としての基本設計部分については
当時の軍事常識を踏まえた合理的な分析が可能だと思います。

そういうなかで「天主」という建築は、
目的としては高所からの情勢判断、観望ということだろう。
この段階での戦争は基本的には白兵戦による陣地攻防戦。
軍勢の動きを高所から観望して各陣地に戦力配置する判断にとって
必要欠くべからざる建築要素だったことでしょう。
一方で地域支配の象徴であり、ある意味安心感の担保装置。
武力という目に見える権力の象徴、アイコンになっていた。
天主という建築領域がいつ成立したのかは不勉強ですが、
一般的には戦国の覇者・信長が築いた安土城天守がその嚆矢だったと思える。
独特の「天下布武」思想を実践していった信長らしい建築として
近年、その復元が行われた博物館も安土にはあり、見学して
その様子をこのブログでも紹介しています。
いかにも「天主」というコトバ通りの上層階デザインが展開していた。
天主というものの基本属性から「どう見られるか」ということに
権力者として強く意識を持つに違いない。
権力者は古今東西、自分が権力者であることを他者に強く認識させたい。
一方で自然人としてはなぜ自分が他者よりも上位なのか、
不安にさいなまれるのが普通の感覚なのでしょう。
そういう不安心理は建築という人間行為に深く反映していく。
和歌山城で「外観デザイン検討図案」を興味深くみた。
豊臣支配が関ヶ原で転換し、1600年に紀州を領国とした浅野氏が
その権力を誇示するために「見え」について考えた痕跡。
2枚目の写真と3枚目の写真の3点の外装デザインを巡って
領主・浅野氏と家臣団、建築担当者スタッフとの打合せ記録です。

武士という階層は戦国末期に至って支配層として身分を確立させた。
日本的な「封建権力」として固定化された。
そうすると様式化が急速に進んでいったのだと思える。
その大きな精神性テーマが「見え」だった。
一昨日触れた「三十三間堂通し矢」などの様式化されたことがらに対して
自らの記録を破られたことを「恥辱」と感じる感性。
そのようなバカげたことに「一所懸命」になるように追い詰められる心性。
総じて「見え」にこだわって生きるという悲しい不安の心理。
天主のデザインにこだわる心性には同様の要因が隠されているように思う。
しかし歴史を踏まえた日本人のDNAにはこういう心理要素が色濃いのも事実。
そして明治から150年、世界大戦から75年という節目を越えてきて、
現代建築も新しい価値感に変移していく時期かも知れない。

English version⬇

The study drawing of the castle tower design – Exploration of Nara and Wakayama – 32
The image of the samurai of the peaceful period, who placed the utmost importance on “visibility”. The architects wanted to solve their own anxiety through architecture, and were obsessed with the “visual symbol of domination. …….

Castles were built in great numbers from the end of the Warring States period to the Edo period.
The basic design of castles was based on an understanding of the characteristics of the terrain and the choice of location from a military standpoint.
The basic design of a castle is based on the common sense of the military at that time.
I think it is possible to make a rational analysis based on the military common sense of the time.

In this context, the architecture of the “Tenshu” was designed for the purpose of
The purpose of the “Tenshu” architecture was to assess and observe the situation from a high place.
The war at this stage was basically a battle between white soldiers and the enemy.
The “tenshukaku” is an indispensable architectural element to observe the movement of the army from a high place and to make decisions on the allocation of forces to each position.
The building was an indispensable architectural element for observing the movement of the army from a high vantage point and making decisions on how to deploy forces in each position.
On the other hand, it was a symbol of regional control and in a sense a security device.
It was a visible symbol of power and an icon of military might.
I am not sure when the architectural domain of “tenshu” was established, but it is generally believed to have been a symbol of the supremacy of the Warring States period.
Generally speaking, it seems that the Azuchi Castle keep built by Nobunaga, the supreme ruler of the Warring States period, was a pioneer in this field.
The castle was built by Nobunaga, the supreme ruler of the Warring States period, and it is believed to have been a pioneer in the field of architecture.
In recent years, there is a museum in Azuchi where the castle was restored.
I have already introduced it in this blog.
The design of the upper floors was exactly as the word “tenshu” (Lord of Heaven) implies.
The basic attribute of the “Lord of Heaven” is that it is strongly conscious of “how it is seen” as a person in power.
The person in power must be very conscious of how he or she is seen.
Those in power, in all ages and cultures, want others to strongly perceive them as being in power.
On the other hand, as a natural human being, it is normal to feel insecure about why you are higher than others.
It is normal for a natural person to feel anxious about why he or she is superior to others.
This kind of anxiety is deeply reflected in the human act of architecture.
At Wakayama Castle, I looked at the “Exterior Design Study Plan” with great interest.
The Asano clan, which took over Kishu in 1600 after Toyotomi’s rule changed after the Sekigahara War, built the castle in 1600.
The second and third pictures show the traces of the Asano clan’s consideration of “visibility” in order to show off their power.
The three exterior designs in the second and third photos
These are records of meetings between the lord Asano, his retainers, and the staff in charge of construction.

The warrior class established its status as the ruling class toward the end of the Warring States period.
It was fixed as a Japanese-style “feudal power.
It would seem that stylization then proceeded rapidly.
The major spiritual theme was “visibility.
In response to the stylized events such as the “Sanjusangendo through arrow,” which I mentioned the day before yesterday, the Japanese people were ashamed and humiliated that their own records had been broken.
The sensitivity to feel “humiliation” at having one’s own record broken.
The mentality of being driven to “work hard” at such a silly thing.
A sad and anxious mindset of living in general, obsessed with “visibility.
I think the same factor is hidden in the mentality that is obsessed with the design of the tenshukaku.
However, it is also true that these psychological elements are strong in the DNA of the Japanese people based on their history.
And now that we have passed the milestone of 150 years since the Meiji Era and 75 years since the end of World War II, modern architecture is also shifting to a new sense of values.
It may be time for modern architecture to shift to a new sense of values.

【戦国を揺るがす「雑賀衆」〜奈良・和歌山探訪-31】




雑賀衆というのは紀ノ川下流域一帯で中世後期に形成された地縁共同体。
かれらは紀伊水道を経て列島各地と盛んに交易活動を行った。
紀ノ川は奈良県から和歌山県へと流れ紀伊水道に注ぐ一級水系の本流。
古都の奈良から紀伊水道を貫く水運の大動脈を形成した。
こうした民人にとって、特定の支配者というのはウザい存在だっただろう。
移動交通を本然とするかれらにとっては土地に縛ろうとする権力は忌避の対象。
自由な交易こそが尊重されるべきであり、絶対権力は認めなかった。
中世の交易都市・堺と同様の気風を持ち続けてきた。
高野山や根来寺の存在というのもこういった気風に与っていただろう。

大航海時代によってスペイン・ポルトガルとの交易が盛んになって
雑賀衆は鉄砲の大量所有によって列島各地の戦国武将と「傭兵」契約活動を行う。
銭金でのドライな契約であり、特定の武将との関係は持たなかった。
織田信長がはじめて義父・斎藤道三と対面するとき大量の鉄砲行列を見せた故事は
この雑賀衆が一時的な「傭兵契約」で動員されたとされる。
織田氏とはこのようにドライな関係が続き、その後の本願寺大阪合戦では
本願寺側と契約にいたって天下軍としての織田方を大いに苦しめた。
本願寺の顕如からの文書なども確認されている。
信長はこの雑賀を攻撃していったんは雑賀衆は降伏するが
すぐに約定を反古にしてその後も本願寺への支援を続けた。
その後、本願寺は大阪を立ち退いて織田と和睦したあと雑賀に逃れるけれど、
だからといって、宗教的に強く一向宗門徒勢力とも思えない。
そういった宗教勢力に対してもあくまでも「契約的協力」と思える。
同時代の播州英賀の場合は、英賀御堂という本願寺の寺院を招致するほどだったのに
本願寺と雑賀の場合にはそうは思われないのだ。
この探訪記事のきっかけの和歌山城近くの「三木町」はまさに雑賀勢力の中枢にある。
中世での宗教勢力と経済勢力との微妙な距離感、関係性を偲ばせる。
推測としては英賀の勢力としては雑賀を取り込む意味で
交易関係を深めるために水運交易の中枢に拠点を構えた消息がみえる。
本願寺−雑賀衆ー播州英賀勢力の間の複雑な外交状況。
雑賀としては「つかず離れず」で経済つながりだけ、が基本外交路線だったのだろう。

3番目の写真は「雑賀孫市」の署名もみえる雑賀衆の「起請文」。
個人的にはこの雑賀衆に強く惹かれるものがある。
日本人は農的な価値感と縄文以来の自然崇拝が優勢で、個人主義的な傾向は
やや薄いのではないかと思われる中で、雑賀衆の自由な動向は
いかにも颯爽とした自由人の生き様を象徴しているように感じる。
やがて秀吉政権という強力な武権の成立ですりつぶされる歴史になるけれど、
かれらのような個性が日本人のDNAのなかにあることが面白い(笑)。

English version⬇

Saika Shu” that Shook the Warring States Period – Visit to Nara and Wakayama – 31
The Saika Shu fought with a clear “right to freedom” in Japan, where the DNA of the relatively submissive type is dominant. I feel solidarity with this kind of spirit. …

The Saika Shu were a geographical community formed in the lower reaches of the Kino River in the late Middle Ages.
They actively traded with various parts of the archipelago via the Kii Channel.
The Kino River is the main stream of a first-class water system that flows from Nara Prefecture to Wakayama Prefecture and empties into the Kii Channel.
It formed a major artery of water transportation from the ancient capital Nara to the Kii Waterway.
For these people, a particular ruler must have been an annoying presence.
For these people, who by nature are mobile, any power that tries to tie them to the land is an anathema.
Free trade was to be respected, and absolute power was not acceptable.
They have maintained the same spirit as Sakai, a trading city in the Middle Ages.
The existence of Koyasan and Negoro-ji temples probably contributed to this atmosphere.

The Age of Discovery brought about a flourishing trade with Spain and Portugal, and the Zoka Shu began to produce large quantities of guns.
The Saika Shu, owning a large number of guns, contracted with warlords in various parts of the archipelago as “mercenaries”.
It was a dry contract with money and did not have a relationship with a specific warlord.
The story of Oda Nobunaga’s first meeting with his father-in-law, Saito Dosan, in which he showed a large number of guns in a procession is well known.
It is said that the Zoga were mobilized under a temporary “mercenary contract.
The Saika Shu were temporarily mobilized as “mercenaries” under a “mercenary contract.
The Saika Shu were contracted to the Honganji side, which greatly distressed the Oda side as a military force under heaven.
Documents from Kennyo of Honganji have been confirmed.
Nobunaga attacked the Saika Shu, and the Saika Shu surrendered for a time.
However, the Saika Shu quickly reneged on their agreement and continued to support Hongan-ji.
After that, Honganji evacuated Osaka, made peace with Oda, and fled to Saika Shu.
However, this does not mean that he was a strong religious leader of the Ikkyu sect.
It seems to be a “contractual cooperation” against such religious forces.
In the case of Banshu Eiga of the same period, they even invited a temple of Honganji called Eiga Godo.
However, this does not seem to be the case with Honganji and Zoga.
Miki-machi” near Wakayama Castle, which inspired this exploratory article, is exactly at the center of the Saika Shu power.
It reminds us of the delicate distance and relationship between religious and economic forces in the Middle Ages.
It is speculated that the Eiga power was trying to bring the Zouga into their fold.
The Eiga’s power may have been based in the center of water transportation in order to deepen their trading relationship with the Saika Shu.
The complicated diplomatic situation between Honganji, Zoga, and Banshu Eiga forces.
The Saika Shu’s basic diplomatic line was probably to “stay close” and only have economic ties.

The third photo is a “letter of appointment” of the Zoga Shu, which also shows the signature of “Magoichi Zoga.
Personally, I am strongly attracted to this Saika Shu group.
Japanese people have a predominant sense of agricultural values and nature worship since the Jomon period.
The Saika Shu’s free movement is indeed a dashing and free spirit.
The free movement of the Saika Shu is symbolic of the way of life of a dashing free spirit.
Although the history of the Saika Shu will eventually be erased by the establishment of the powerful military power of Hideyoshi’s regime, I believe that the Saika Shu were a unique group of people who were able to create their own unique style of life.
It is interesting to know that such individuality exists in the DNA of the Japanese people (laugh).

【三十三間堂「通し矢」虚名の武士道〜奈良・和歌山探訪-30】




和歌山城の創建期から探究していていろいろな「掘り起こし」がある。
歴史というのは実にいろいろな人間模様を教えてくれる。
三十三間堂というのは京都の有名建築で、縁の長さが三十三間あるとされる。
京都市東山区三十三間堂廻町にある天台宗寺院。建物正式名は蓮華王院本堂。
京都市東山妙法院が所有・管理。元は後白河上皇が自身の離宮内に創建した仏堂。
桁行118.2メートル33間、梁間3間の建築本体四方に1間幅の庇を設けた形。
この長大な縁の空間を目にして、通し矢というイベントを思いつくのは
創建が平清盛であり武家の時代が始まったことと無関係ではないと思われる。
本堂西側の軒下を南から北に矢を射通す弓術競技。安土桃山時代に行われ始め、
江戸時代前期に各藩の弓術家により盛んに行われ、京の名物行事となった。
縁の北端に的を置き、縁の南端から軒天井に当たらぬよう矢を射抜き本数を競った。
藩の後押しで多くの弓術家が技量を競ったことから名誉となり、
一昼夜での通し矢数を競う「大矢数」の記録達成者は「天下一」を称した。
1686年4月27日に紀州藩の和佐範遠(大八郎)が総矢数13,053本中通し矢
8,133本で天下一となり、これが現在までの最高記録を達成した。

この紀州藩士が挑戦したのにはエピソードがあり
戦時下に長谷川一夫主演で日本映画会社すべての協力体制の元、撮影された。
史実に基づいた映画。和佐範遠は過去の新記録保持者の子どもであり、
その記録を尾張藩の家臣・星野勘佐衛門に破られたことから恥じて
父親は自害して果てたという因縁があった。
そういうことからいわば父の仇討ちのような背景事情があったのだ。
で、映画では尾張藩側の妨害工作、浪人を雇っての襲撃まで活写される。
映画らしく、その襲撃から和佐範遠を守ったのが星野勘佐衛門その人という
意外な展開を見せて物語として盛り上げている。
そして見事、三十三間堂通し矢の新記録を樹立することに成功する。
この新記録樹立に対しては京都で盛大な祝宴が催され、
紀州徳川家2代藩主・徳川光貞が直々でかれを出迎え300石の褒美を与えた。

2重の意味でなんとも興味深い歴史事実。
江戸の泰平の世での武士の「生き様」というものが切なく伝わってくるのと、
戦時下で「武士道精神発揚」の意味合いで軍部の許可を得て
ようやく映画制作にこぎ着けた「銃後の人々」の思い。
日本人と武士道というものが一種、象徴的なものとして伝わってくる。
いまちょうど、NHK大河ドラマでは「鎌倉殿と13人」が
始原期のドロドロの武家政治について取り上げているけれど、
その後の武士道の姿について、この三十三間堂通し矢はいろいろな
語り口で教えてくれるものがある。
現代でも似たようなメンタル支配下にあるロシアの蛮行はまことに白日の狂気。
われわれ現代日本は冷静に防衛力を高めなければ
むなしい武士道に生きざるを得なかった先人たちにも申し訳がないと思う。

English version⬇

Sanjusangendo “Passing arrow” Bushido with a false name – Exploring Nara and Wakayama – 30
The honor of being praised and the priority of form. Hana no taijutsu katsudo kyoka event. Bushido, a way of life at the mercy of empty values. …

I have been exploring Wakayama Castle since its foundation and have “dug up” a lot of things.
History teaches us a lot about the human condition.
Sanjusangendo is a famous building in Kyoto with a 33-meter-long rim.
It is a Tendai sect temple located in Sanjusangendo Mawaricho, Higashiyama-ku, Kyoto. The building’s official name is Rengeoin Main Hall.
Owned and managed by Higashiyama Myoho-in, Kyoto. Originally a Buddhist temple built by Emperor Go-Shirakawa in his own detached palace.
The main body of the building is 118.2 meters long with 33 ken and 3 beam spans, and has 1 ken wide eaves on all four sides.
This long rimmed space is the only one that brings to mind the event of the “through-arrow” ceremony.
It is not unrelated to the fact that the building was built by Taira no Kiyomori, the founder of the warrior class.
This is an archery event in which arrows are shot through the eaves of the west side of the main hall from south to north. It began to be practiced in the Azuchi-Momoyama period (1573-1600).
In the early Edo period (1603-1867), it was actively practiced by archers of various clans and became a famous event in Kyoto.
The target was placed at the north end of the rim, and arrows were shot from the south end of the rim to avoid hitting the eaves of the ceiling.
The event became an honor because many archers competed with their skills under the auspices of the clan.
The record holder of the “number of arrows shot in a single day and night” was called “the best in the world.
On April 27, 1686, Noriton Wasa (Daihachiro) of the Kishu Domain achieved a record of 8,133 arrows out of a total of 13,053 arrows.
This was the highest record to date.

There is an episode behind this Kishu clan member’s challenge.
It was filmed during wartime with the cooperation of all Japanese movie companies, starring Kazuo Hasegawa.
The film is based on historical fact. Noriton Wasa was the child of a past new record holder, and
He was ashamed when his record was broken by Kanzaemon Hoshino, a vassal of the Owari Clan.
The record was broken by Hoshino Kansaemon, a vassal of the Owari clan, and his father was so ashamed that he committed suicide.
This is why there was a background circumstance that was akin to avenging his father’s death.
In the movie, the sabotage by the Owari clan side and the attack by hiring ronin (ronin) are vividly depicted.
The film shows an unexpected development in the story, and the story is that it was Hoshino Kansaemon himself who protected Wasa Noriton from the attack.
The story is enlivened by the unexpected development that it was Hoshino Kansaemon himself who protected Wasa Noritoshi from the attack.
The film successfully sets a new record for the Sanjusangendo through-arrow attack.
A grand banquet was held in Kyoto to celebrate the new record.
The second lord of the Kishu Tokugawa family, Mitsusada Tokugawa, personally welcomed him and rewarded him with 300 koku.

This is an interesting historical fact in a double sense.
One, it gives us a poignant picture of the “way of life” of the samurai in the peaceful days of Edo, and two, it shows us the “spirit of bushido” in wartime.
The film was made under wartime conditions with the permission of the military to “promote the spirit of bushido”.
The feelings of the “people after the guns” who finally managed to make the film after receiving permission from the military to “promote the spirit of bushido” during the war.
The Japanese people and bushido are conveyed as a kind of symbol.
The NHK historical drama “Kamakura-dono and the Thirteen” is being broadcast right now.
The drama is about the doldrums of samurai politics during the Hajime period, but it is also about the subsequent form of bushido.
The Sanjusangendo Passage tells us about the form of Bushido after that time in various ways.
The Sanjusangendo Passage has a lot to teach us about the later form of bushido through its various narratives.
The barbarism of Russia, which is under similar mental control even today, is truly a madness in the light of day.
We, modern Japan, must calmly raise our defenses.
I feel sorry for our predecessors who were forced to live a vain Bushido life.

【和歌山城「高石垣」と「御橋廊下」〜奈良・和歌山探索-29】



さて和歌山城の初期設計施工にあたった藤堂高虎の一連の築城について
スピンアウトして探ってみました。
かれの心酔した主君・豊臣秀長にその築城の才を見出され、
その最初の仕事とされるのがこの和歌山築城だった。
この「高石垣」は城の南端に位置して、仮想敵である雑賀衆の拠点「岡」に
対しての防御力を高めるために高虎が築き上げた高さ14mの防衛建築。
この築城段階ではまだ雑賀衆の余力は十分な段階だっただろうけれど、
この宏壮な高石垣をはるかに見て、その戦闘力を萎えさせた。
「この防衛ラインを突破するのは・・・」と諦めさせる効果があっただろう。
城は戦略的観点から基本となる縄張り、設計思想を持つものであり、
この地域に根ざした勢力である雑賀衆への支配者としての戦略を貫徹させている。
この築城の経験から、やがて伏見での家康接遇の建築造営の機会に
さらに城郭造りの面白さに目覚めて重厚な防備構造をつくったとされる。
それが結果として天下人家康との接近機会となり、
その後、天下規模で要衝地の城郭建築にその才を発揮した。
武将としての戦闘力とはまた別に、こういった建築家としての側面が
非常に色濃い個性だと言うことが見えてきた次第です。
この時代すでに中井家とか穴太衆とかの建築専門技術者の名前も出てくる。
「飛騨の匠」から始まる日本の建築技術者の系譜に
この戦国〜江戸期「大建築時代」での個性の出現とも思える。
かれ、藤堂高虎は一連の建築・築城行為のなかで
近代的自我としてその醍醐味に耽溺していたように想像されるのです。


一方でその下の写真は江戸期になって実現した平和の時代、
御三家の紀州徳川家時代に二の丸から西の丸を行き来するためとあるが、
実際にはお城から大名庭園へ「渡っていく」ための
「御橋廊下〜おはしろうか」の外観と内観。
地形的な傾斜なりに上下差があり、階段が自立建築化した。
防衛目的の視覚的明確化の高石垣に対してきわめて装飾的な建築思想。
御三家という最上級格式意識が建築表現されている。
同じ和歌山城で、まるで相反的な建築意識が同居している。
戦争の時代から平和の時代への転換が明示されているということか。
しかし個人的には藩主の徒歩移動の目的だけで重厚な礎石を組み、
高々と基層構造を組み上げていってなお、屋根壁を装置することに
どのような必要性があるのかと強い違和感を感じさせられた。
こういう建築文化を好きな向きもあるだろうし、また
建築目的としても一ジャンルであるだろうとは思う。
しかしこのために大枚の建築費用が掛けられた事実から
そこに「退廃」のニオイが感じられ反発する気持ちが沸き起こってくる。
安全の担保された城中での場所移動にこういう無駄遣いする心理に
名状しがたい「バカ殿」感を感じてしまう。わたしのひがみだろうか(笑)。

English version⬇

Strategic “High Stone Walls” and Wasteful “Gobashi Corridor” – Exploring Nara and Wakayama – 29
Strategic architecture of practicality and wasteful architecture. Both of them may be possible as architecture. But now….

Now, let’s take a spin and explore the series of castles built by Takatora Todo, who was responsible for the initial design and construction of Wakayama Castle.
I have taken a spin out to explore the series of castles built by Takatora Todo, who designed and built Wakayama Castle in its early stages.
His master Toyotomi Hidenaga, whom he was very much in love with, discovered his talent for building castles, and his first work was the construction of this Wakayama Castle.
His first work was the construction of this castle in Wakayama.
This “high stone wall” is located at the southern end of the castle to increase the defensive strength against the “Oka,” the stronghold of the Zoga-shu, the castle’s hypothetical enemy.
This “high stone wall” is located at the southern end of the castle and was built by Takatora to increase the castle’s defensive strength against Oka, the stronghold of the Zoga Shu, a hypothetical enemy.
At this stage of the castle’s construction, the Zoga-shu would have still had plenty of strength to spare, but
The sight of this magnificent high stone wall by far deflated their fighting strength.
It would have had the effect of forcing them to give up, saying, “It is impossible to break through this line of defense.
A castle is a basic territory and design concept from a strategic point of view.
It is a strategy to carry through as a ruler to the Zoga-shu, a force rooted in this region.
This castle-building experience eventually led him to the opportunity to build a building for the reception of Ieyasu in Fushimi, and he was further fascinated by castle-building.
It is said that Ieyasu was further awakened to the fun of building castles, and built a massive defensive structure.
This is said to have brought him closer to Ieyasu, the great ruler of the country.
Later, he demonstrated his talent for building castles in key locations throughout Japan.
Apart from his combat ability as a military commander, he was also an architect.
In addition to his military prowess as a warlord, he was also an architect with a strong personality.
In this period, the names of architectural specialists such as the Nakai family and the Anata-shu were already mentioned.
In the genealogy of Japanese architectural engineers starting from “Hida no Takumi
It seems to be the emergence of individuality in this “Great Architectural Age” of the Warring States to Edo period.
In a series of architectural and castle-building activities, Takatora Todo
He, Takatora Todo, seems to have indulged his modern ego in a series of architectural and castle-building activities.

On the other hand, the picture below shows the period of peace that was realized in the Edo period.
The picture below, on the other hand, was realized in the Edo period (1603-1868), a time of peace, when the Kishu-Tokugawa family, one of the three great families of the Tokugawa dynasty, used the castle to go from Ninomaru to Nishinomaru.
In reality, it was used to “cross” from the castle to the Daimyo Garden.
Exterior and interior views of the “Ohashirouka” (bridge corridor).
The topographical slope of the building has a vertical difference, and the stairway has become a freestanding structure.
The architectural concept is extremely decorative in contrast to the high stone walls that visually clarify the purpose of defense.
The architectural expression of the awareness of the three highest-ranking families is expressed.
In the same Wakayama Castle, two opposing architectural ideas coexist.
Is this a clear indication of the transition from the age of war to the age of peace?
Personally, however, I think that the heavy foundation stones were built solely for the purpose of allowing the feudal lords to move around on foot.
I personally wonder what the need is to build a roof wall after constructing a massive foundation stone and a high substructure just for the purpose of walking of the feudal lord.
I was strongly discomforted by the necessity of building a roof wall even after constructing a massive foundation stone and a tall substructure just for the purpose of walking of the feudal lord.
Some people may like this kind of architectural culture, and it may be a genre of architectural purpose.
I think it is a genre of architectural purpose.
However, the fact that a large sum of money was spent for this project
I feel the smell of “decadence” in it, and a feeling of repugnance arises.
The psychology of wasting money like this to move around in a castle where safety is assured
I feel an indescribable sense of “Bakadono”. Is it my own prejudice?

【石垣と水路建設による列島改造史〜奈良・和歌山探索-28】




日本の城郭で基礎的な技術は「石垣」の積層技術なのでしょう。
自然地形を活かしベースにしながら、具体的な戦争行為をそこに反映させて
防御的な視点から陣地を構築して行くとき、
「攻め手が諦める」高い石垣というのが基本だと思われる。
一定の高さ以上の石積みには高い技術発展があったとされる。
そしてもう一つは、濠という水での防衛ということ。
刀や矢、鉄砲による攻撃から身を守るためには防具を着込む必要があり、
それを多人数で装備して濠を越えるのはほぼムリ。
そうして攻城側の陣立てを高い位置から把握して効果的な防衛作戦を組み立てる。
城というのはそういった役割を果たしていたのでしょう。
そういう武力を涵養するには当然ながら経済を押さえる必要があり、
秀吉の大阪城のように全国の富を集中させることで
経済と軍事の主導権を掌握することで日本の歴史的武権は強化された。

そういうことでその両面から日本の土木建築技術が発展した。
上の写真はシリーズで研究している藤堂高虎の築いた「今治城」。
戦略的な位置関係では、歴史的に日本の物流にとって最重要だった
瀬戸内海水運の要衝地に当たることがあきらかです。
地図上の青いラインが現代の「航路」に相当するほどに
理に適った地理把握なのだと思われる。
この要衝地に水運の交易接点としての利便性を高いレベルで確保している。
濠と石垣、そして高所からの人流把握が可能である様子が自明。
日本は多くの山岳によって平野部が分散的になっている。
そして基本が稲作農業であり田んぼに用水を導く土木技術が大発展した。
その土木技術がこの高石垣構築には反映しているのでしょう。
石垣を高く積み上げるには作業合理性と堅牢性の両方が解決される必要がある。
藤堂高虎の時代、水城の土木工事築城手法が大発展して
それをコントロールする技術力が武権側から要請された。
きのうみた近江の琵琶湖水運と陸上交通の結節点を支配する「膳所城」築城で
水上での土木工事技術を確立させ、引き続き瀬戸内海地域で
こうした直接に水運を掌握する水城としての建設も成功させている。
3番目の写真は東国から京都への陸路の要衝、伊賀上野城の高石垣の様子。

どうもこういう石垣構築技術というのが安藤忠雄のコンクリート打ち放しと
二重写しになる気分。藤堂高虎は戦国期の安藤忠雄ともイメージできる(笑)。
いわば土木工事技術によって建築意思を持って地形を改造し、
それを強固な壁としてコンクリートする、みたいな同質性を感じるのです。
逆に現代の「作家性」の高まった建築家たちが、もし築城という建築機会を得たら
どういう城郭建築を実現させるのかと、妄想する(笑)。
日本人というのはこういう築城、自然改造による建築意思の表現が
民族的に相当に「数寄」なのではないかと思ってきています。さて・・・。

English version⬇

The History of the Remodeling of the Archipelago through the Construction of Stone Walls and Waterways – Exploration of Nara and Wakayama – 28
The history of DNA is deeply engraved in the architecture of castles. …

The fundamental technology in Japanese castles is probably the “stone wall” lamination technique.
While utilizing and veiling the natural terrain, specific acts of war are reflected in it.
When building a position from a defensive point of view
It seems to me that the basic idea is a high stone wall that “the attacker gives up.
It is said that there was a high level of technological development in masonry above a certain height.
The other is the defense by water called moat.
In order to protect themselves from attacks by swords, arrows, and guns, it was necessary to wear protective gear.
It was almost impossible for a large number of people to cross the moat equipped with such gear.
The castle was thus used to grasp the position of the attackers from a high vantage point and to formulate an effective defensive strategy.
This is the role of a castle.
In order to cultivate such military power, it was of course necessary to control the economy.
By concentrating the wealth of the whole country, as in Hideyoshi’s Osaka Castle
By seizing control of the economy and the military, Japan’s historical military power was strengthened.

That is how Japan’s civil engineering and construction technology developed on both fronts.
The photo above is “Imabari Castle” built by Takatora Todo, whom we are studying in the series.
In terms of strategic location, it was historically the most important for Japanese logistics.
It is clear that Imabari Castle is located at the strategic point of the Seto Inland Sea water transportation, which was historically the most important for the distribution of goods in Japan.
The blue line on the map corresponds to a modern-day “sea route.
The blue line on the map corresponds to a modern “sea route.
The site is conveniently located at this strategic point as a trading contact point for water transportation.
The moat, stone walls, and the ability to grasp the flow of people from high places are self-evident.
In Japan, plains are dispersed by many mountains.
The basic agriculture in Japan is rice farming, and civil engineering technology to guide water to rice paddies has developed greatly.
This civil engineering technology is probably reflected in the construction of this high stone wall.
In order to pile up stonewalls high, both work rationality and robustness need to be resolved.
During the reign of Takatora Todo, the method of civil engineering construction of water castles developed greatly, and
The technical ability to control it was required from the military side.
The construction of “Zesho Castle,” which controlled the node of Lake Biwa water transportation and land transportation in Omi, as I mentioned yesterday, established the technology of civil engineering works on the water.
The castle was built to control the water transportation of Lake Biwa and land transportation in the Omi area, and the construction of Zessho Castle established civil engineering technology on the water.
The third photo shows a castle built in the Seto Inland Sea area in Kyoto, which was constructed by the shoguns from the eastern part of the country.
The third photo shows the high stonewalls of Iga-Ueno Castle, a strategic point on the overland route from Higashikuni to Kyoto.

This kind of stone wall construction technique is a double image of Tadao Ando’s concrete wall.
I feel like I am in a double vision of Tadao Ando’s concrete wall construction techniques. I can imagine Takatora Todo as Tadao Ando of the Sengoku period (laugh).
In a manner of speaking, he modified the terrain with architectural intent through civil engineering technology, and then concreted it as a solid wall.
I feel a sense of homogeneity, like a person who transforms the terrain with architectural intent through civil engineering techniques and concretes it as a solid wall.
On the other hand, if contemporary architects with a heightened sense of “auteurism” were given the opportunity to build a castle, what kind of castle architecture would they realize?
I fantasize about what kind of castle architecture they would create if they had the opportunity to build a castle (laughs).
Japanese people have a strong tendency to express their architectural intentions through castle construction and natural remodeling.
I am beginning to think that the Japanese are quite “sukiyoshi” in terms of their ethnicity. Now…

【要衝戦略眼と施工技術開発「膳所城」 奈良・和歌山探索-27】




関ヶ原で勝利した後に家康は藤堂高虎に命じて「膳所城」を築城した。
この膳所城は古来「瀬田を制するものは天下を制する」と言われる地。
東国から京都に向かう琵琶湖南端に位置していて、
源平合戦期でも木曽義仲軍がここでの戦闘で平家に勝利し、
その義仲は関東の範頼・義経軍にここを突破されて敗死した。
京都自体は北以外は開かれた地理にあって特段の防衛山岳を持たない。
都市計画の発想において風水的着眼、律令国家的な都市設計だった。
関ヶ原の勝利以降、当然自らの天下構想に基づいて家康は
この瀬田一帯をどのようにコントロール下に置くべきか、
さまざまに構想を巡らせたに違いない。
その上で築城の名人とされた藤堂高虎を外様ながら重用して設計施工に当たらせた。

地図でわかるように膳所城は今日の「近江大橋」直近の位置であり、
琵琶湖の水運にとっても、そして東海道「国道1号線」にとってもまさに要衝地。
現代では東海道新幹線、高速道路E1号線、そして国道1号などの幹線が通る。
この古今を通しての東西交通の最重要地域を掌握する城として構想された。
その設計施工に当たっての家康と藤堂高虎の打合せの様子を
既述の安部龍太郎「下天を謀る」では想像力豊かに活写している。
この城郭は琵琶湖最南端に対して「水城」としてせり出して建築された。
水運に対しても陸上交通に対してもそれを制御し、支配することが可能な配置。
水域に対して基礎工事を行っていく技術的困難を琵琶湖周辺の有力建築団、
「穴太衆」と綿密に打合せながら工事を成功させていったとされる。
おおむね蓋然性の高い描写ではなかったかと思われた。
水流を統御しながら木杭を湖面に打ち込んで行ってとっかかりを作り、
そこに礎石を大量に投入して足場を固めて行く工事段取り。
工事の結果、水上を制圧する本格的な「水城」がみごとに出来上がった。
家康の天下支配に当たって対上方の軍事政治上の拠点として有用な城郭。
ここでの水城成功体験から、その後支配地「今治城」築城でも
瀬戸内海水運を支配することに藤堂高虎は成功している。
家康の戦略においてきわめて重要な京都・西国の交通要衝地を押さえられた。
こういう水城での人工的島嶼土木建築技術を確立させたことがあきらか。
家康の腰巾着のウザいヤツ、という藤堂高虎の評価は逆に、
かれの果たした役割の大きさを物語っているのだろう。
家康の周到な全国支配戦略に於いてそれが破綻せず、
江戸時代250年以上の国内平和を実現させた意味に於いて有益だった。

この水城築城成功の一件は、藤堂高虎自身にとっても、
また戦国末期、江戸期の穴太衆など「大手ゼネコン」による工事ラッシュにとっても
非常に重要なメルクマールになったのではないのだろうか?

English version⬇

The development of strategic eyes and construction techniques for the key strategic point “Zensho Castle” Nara and Wakayama Exploration-27].
Whoever controls Seta controls the whole country. The construction of a water castle by creating artificial ground in Seta, the most important strategic point for the realization of peace in the Edo period, is a strategy for regional defense. Nara and Wakayama

After his victory at Sekigahara, Ieyasu ordered Takatora Todo to build “Zessho Castle.
This Zesho Castle is the place where it has been said since ancient times, “He who controls Seta controls the whole country.
It was located at the southern tip of Lake Biwa on the way to Kyoto from the eastern part of the country.
During the Genpei War, Kiso Yoshinaka’s army defeated the Heike clan in a battle here.
Yoshinaka was defeated by Noriyori and Yoshitsune’s forces from Kanto, who broke through here.
Kyoto itself is an open geography except to the north and has no special defensive mountains.
The city was designed from a feng shui perspective and in the manner of the Ritsuryo State in urban planning.
After his victory in Sekigahara, Ieyasu naturally decided
How should this area of Seta be under his control?
Ieyasu must have been thinking about how he should control the Seta area.
He then had Takatora Todo, who was regarded as a master of castle construction, design and construct the castle even though he was a foreigner.

As you can see on the map, Zesho Castle is located near today’s Omi Ohashi Bridge.
It was a strategic point for the water transportation of Lake Biwa and for the Tokaido Highway Route 1.
Today, the Tokaido Shinkansen bullet train, the E1 expressway, and National Route 1 all pass through the area.
The castle was conceived as a castle that would control the most important area for east-west transportation throughout the ages.
Ieyasu and Takatora Todo had a meeting about the design and construction of the castle.
Ryutaro Abe’s “Geden wo kakiru” (Conspiring for the future), already mentioned, vividly and imaginatively describes the discussions between Ieyasu and Takatora Todo in designing and constructing the castle.
This castle was built to overhang the southernmost point of Lake Biwa as a “water castle.
The castle was built to control and dominate both water and land transportation.
The technical difficulty of constructing the foundation against the water was solved by working closely with the Anata-shu, an influential group of builders around Lake Biwa.
It is said that they succeeded in the construction while closely discussing the technical difficulties of building a foundation against the water with the “Anata-shu,” a group of influential builders around Lake Biwa.
This is a highly plausible description.
The wooden piles were driven into the surface of the lake while controlling the water flow to create a starting point, and a large number of foundation stones were placed there.
The construction setup involved driving wooden piles into the surface of the lake while controlling the water flow to create a foothold, and then placing a large number of foundation stones to solidify the foothold.
As a result of the construction, a full-scale “water castle” was successfully built to control the water.
This castle was useful as a military and political base for Ieyasu’s rule in the upper part of Japan.
The success of this castle led to the construction of Imabari Castle, which was later used as a castle in the area of Ieyasu’s control.
Takatora Todo succeeded in controlling the Seto Inland Sea water transportation.
He was able to seize a strategic point for transportation between Kyoto and the western part of Japan, which was extremely important in Ieyasu’s strategy.
It is clear that he established artificial island civil engineering and construction techniques in these water castles.
The reputation of Takatora Todo as an annoying lackey of Ieyasu is on the contrary.
Ieyasu’s pawns.
Ieyasu’s strategy of carefully controlling the whole country did not break down, and he was able to maintain domestic peace for more than 250 years during the Edo period.
Ieyasu’s strategy to control the whole country did not break down, and it was beneficial in terms of achieving domestic peace for more than 250 years during the Edo period.

The success of the construction of Suijo Castle was also a great success for Takatora Todo himself.
and for the rush of construction by “major general contractors” such as Anotashu in the late Sengoku and Edo periods.
This success may have been a very important merkmal for Takatora Todo himself and for the rush of construction by “major general contractors” such as Anata-shu in the late Sengoku and Edo periods.

【戦国末期からの城「建築」活況期 奈良・和歌山探索-26】




<和歌山城は「虎伏山」の自然地形を活用したもの。その由来を示す置物>

現代は人の集散機能性・交流優先の街づくりが行われている。
江戸末期人口が3,000万人社会から戦前期に6,000万人まで人口増加。
そして戦後から今日までで人口1億2,000万人まで増加し、
それは大都市圏の人口吸引によって達成されてきた。
これだけの社会激変があって高層コンクリートによって街が建築されている。
交通網も飛躍的に高度化してきているけれど、
戦国末期から江戸期への激変ぶりも凄かったのではないだろうか。
現代の「大都市」は札幌以外、その多くは言うまでもなく
この時期に「都市創造計画」の起点が記されている。

藤堂高虎という人物は徳川家康への擦り寄りぶりから
上方社会の嫌われ者みたいな評価が多いけれど、
こと城郭建築という面では各地にその事業痕跡を残している。
この時代の城とは軍事目的が基本だけれど同時に「まちづくり」でもある。
信長の楽市楽座や安土城がひとつの時代的転機を形成したのだろうけれど
世界情勢としての「大航海時代」に日本社会が遭遇して
資本主義的、重商主義的視点からの社会改造が活況を呈していた。
政治軍事経済が一体になって「まちづくり」の骨格形成がされた。
かれ藤堂高虎はこういう時代にあって城郭建築の第一人者と呼ばれた。
その基礎は豊臣秀長に仕えていた時代に形成され、
<秀長の勧めで当代一流の棟梁、中井正清・甲良宗広・穴太衆ら建築者と交流。
また織田信長の安土城築城では秀吉も築城奉行の一人であったので、
当然高虎も秀長に従って工事に従事している。
和歌山城の築城に当たって普請奉行に任命され初の築城差配を経験。
方広寺大仏殿建設の際には材木を熊野から調達するよう秀吉から命じられる。
聚楽第内の徳川屋敷建築に携わる。高虎は渡された設計図に難点があると
独断で設計変更、費用は自分の持ち出しとする。のちに家康に引見され、
設計図と違う点を尋ねられると「家康様に御不慮があれば主人・秀長の不行き届き、
関白秀吉様の面目に関わると存じ私の一存で変更しました。御不興であれば
ご容赦なくお手討ちを」と返した。家康は高虎の心遣いに感謝したという。>
というような経歴がWikiに記載されている。

かれはどうも建築土木の総合された築城行為に「数寄」を感じていたに違いない。
中井正清・甲良宗広・穴太衆という現代で言えば鹿島建設・竹中工務店といった
大手エネコンに比較しうるような存在と深く関わっていたのだろう。
かれらを建築施工者として使いながら、多数の「城」建設に取り組んだ。
こういう特殊技能者、建築家であり同時に政治家・軍人とも思える人物に対し
家康はその能力を存分に引き出したのだというようにも思える。
武将であり、戦場での武者働きに秀でていたことは前提ではあるけれど、
安部龍太郎氏の小説を読むと、秀長からはそういう武者根性をたしなめられ
より高い視点で世に尽くすことを考えよ、と諭されたとされる。
和歌山城の縄張りの基幹に建築者の「数寄」の痕跡を見る思いがします。

English version⬇

Exploration of Nara and Wakayama during the booming period of castle “construction” from the end of the Warring States period-26
Japan’s major cities originated in urban design from the perspective of military politics and economy during the Sengoku and Edo periods. This exhibition hand-dug the “age of architecture”. Nara and Wakayama

Today, the city is being developed with priority given to the functionality of gathering and dispersing people and interaction.
The population grew from 30 million at the end of the Edo period to 60 million in the prewar period.
The population has increased to 120 million since the end of World War II.
This has been achieved by attracting the population of large metropolitan areas.
With such a drastic social change, cities are being built with high-rise concrete.
The transportation network has also become dramatically more sophisticated.
The drastic changes from the end of the Warring States period to the Edo period must have been tremendous as well.
Needless to say, most of today’s “big cities” except for Sapporo were built during this period.
The starting point of the “City Creation Plan” was written during this period.

Takatora Todo was a man who was known to be a hated figure in the upper class society because of his close relationship with Ieyasu Tokugawa.
Takatora Todo is often regarded as a hated figure in the upper classes of society because of his close ties to Ieyasu Tokugawa.
However, in terms of castle construction, he has left traces of his business in many places.
Castles of this period were basically for military purposes, but at the same time, they also served the purpose of “community building.
Nobunaga’s Rakuichi Rakuza and Azuchi Castle may have marked a turning point in the history of castles.
However, the “Age of Discovery” that Japanese society encountered as a global situation
The social transformation from a capitalist and mercantilist viewpoint was booming.
Political, military, and economic activities were integrated to form the framework of “urban development.
Takatora Todo was called the leading expert on castle construction in this era.
The foundation was formed during his time in the service of Toyotomi Hidenaga.
<At Hidenaga’s urging, he interacted with the leading master builders of the day, including Masakiyo Nakai, Munehiro Koura, and Ano-shu.
In addition, since Hideyoshi was one of the magistrates in charge of the construction of Azuchi Castle by Oda Nobunaga, Takatora naturally followed Hidenaga’s lead in the construction of the castle.
Naturally, Takatora also followed Hidenaga’s lead and worked on the construction.
In the construction of Wakayama Castle, Takatora was appointed as a fukushin-bugyo and experienced his first experience in castle construction.
When constructing the Great Buddha Hall of Hokoji Temple, he was ordered by Hideyoshi to procure lumber from Kumano.
Takatora was involved in the construction of Tokugawa Ieyasu’s residence in Jurakudai. When Takatora found a security problem in the blueprints he was given, he changed the design at his own discretion.
Takatora changed the design at his own discretion and decided to pay for it out of his own pocket. Later, Ieyasu took a look at the plans and asked him what was different from the blueprints.
Ieyasu later visited Takatora and when asked about the differences from the blueprints, Takatora replied, “If Ieyasu-sama is not pleased, it is because his master, Hidemasa, has been careless.
I made the change on my own initiative because I knew it would affect the honor of Hideyoshi Kanpaku. If you are displeased
If you are displeased, please strike him down without mercy. Ieyasu is said to have thanked Takatora for his thoughtfulness. >Ieyasu is said to have thanked Takatora for his thoughtfulness.
Ieyasu is said to have thanked Takatora for his thoughtfulness.

He must have felt “sukiyoshi” in the integrated act of building a castle with architecture and civil engineering.
The company’s name is a reference to Masakiyo Nakai, Munehiro Koura, and Anodashu, who today can be compared to major energy contractors such as Kajima Corporation and Takenaka Corporation.
They must have been deeply involved with Masakiyo Nakai, Munehiro Koura, and Anata Shu, who today would be compared to major energy contractors such as Kajima Corporation and Takenaka Corporation.
He used them as builders in the construction of many “castles”.
Ieyasu fully exploited the abilities of these special technicians, architects, politicians, and military men.
Ieyasu may have drawn out their abilities to the fullest.
Although it is a given that Ieyasu was a military commander and excelled at warrior work on the battlefield, Ieyasu was not a warrior.
However, Ryutaro Abe’s novel suggests that Hidenaga was chastised by Ieyasu for his warrior spirit, and that Ieyasu was more interested in serving the world from a higher perspective.
However, according to Ryutaro Abe’s novel, Hidenaga was said to have rebuked such warrior spirit and admonished him to think about serving the world from a higher perspective.
I think I see traces of the architect’s “sukiyoshi” in the backbone of Wakayama Castle’s layout.