本文へジャンプ

【ネコとネズミの永続戦争 from弥生 日本列島37,000年史-30】




食糧生産の革命だった農業革命は「備蓄」を可能にした。
その保存のために「高床式」という通風重視の建築が最初期から営まれた。
床下空間を広く開放して食糧を土面からの湿度から保全した。
こういう高床の建築思想は南方島嶼での人類知の結果なのだろう。
高床については縄文期の三内丸山遺跡でも「クリ」の貯蔵などで
推定例が確認され、そこでは「コクゾウムシ」痕跡も見られるという。
微生物の世界でも歴史は刻印されてくる。
コメ生産では、最初期からこの高床での貯蔵がワンセットの概念とされる。

で、高床倉庫ではよく「ネズミ返し」の工夫が見られるけれど、
収穫された食糧の保存の大敵はネズミの食害。
そういう食害への安全保障策としての対策が講じられることになった。
そのもっとも最上策として、列島の自然環境の中ではそれまでいなかった
ネコを「輸入して」積極的に飼育しイエネコとして採用して
ネズミに対して軍事的に戦おう、という概念も確認できるという。
いわば稲作の推進の当然の帰結として導入され結果になった。
というか、日本列島に稲作が上陸した段階というのは
稲作文明が相当進化した段階であって、さまざまな農作の経験知が
「一気に」導入された実態が浮かび上がってくる。
従来の日本史では仏教伝来とともに経典のネズミによる食害を防ぐために
大陸から持ってこられた、というネコの列島起源が語られていたけれど、
稲作文化と同時に渡来していた、という説が有力になっきた。
わたし自身はネコにはほとんど興味が無かったけれど、
そう考えると、ネコという愛玩動物もまた歴史的に新しい存在となる。
人類社会、その進化というのは非常に奥行きの深い世界。
イヌやネコといった人類の有用動物として接近してきた動物種との歴史って
もっと太古の昔からのことと漠然と思っていたけれど、
そもそも現生人類の歴史自体、7-8万年なのだから
必ず始原期というものがあって、痕跡としてたどれるのは道理。
ネコが列島に棲息しはじめたのは農耕革命、弥生の世からなのだ。
そうするとどんなに遡っても高々3000年程度、
ブログシリーズタイトルの37,000年史からすればごく最近。
その後紆余曲折があってか、平安期には貴族の高級ペットだったともいう。
ともあれ、始原期にはこういう高床倉庫での対ネズミ戦争の「傭兵」として
機能を期待されて導入されていたというのですね。

東アジア大陸社会でも、ネコは中東方面からの輸入動物種だったとされ、
案外と人類との縁はごく最近深まってきたのだ。
イヌの方はもっと古く1万年前の旧石器・最終氷期以降とされる。
考古からのフィードバックによってこういうペットたちとの歴史というのも
思わぬ新発見をわたしたちにもたらしてくれる。
ひょっとすると犬好き、猫好きという人間の嗜好性についても
科学的、DNA的に解明されていく可能性もありそうですね。

English version⬇

The Perpetual War between Cats and Rats from Yayoi: 37,000 Years of the Japanese Archipelago – 30
Historical traces in the relationship with cats. Warriors continue to fight against the rat army as mercenaries in a warehouse of agricultural products on stilts. …

The agricultural revolution, which was a revolution in food production, made “stockpiling” possible.
In order to preserve the food, “stilts,” a type of architecture that emphasized ventilation, was practiced from the beginning.
The space under the floor was opened widely to protect the food from the humidity from the soil.
This architectural concept of stilts is probably the result of human knowledge of the southern islands.
There are presumed examples of stilts at the Sannai-Maruyama site during the Jomon period, such as those used to store chestnuts.
There, traces of the weevil are said to have been found.
History is also imprinted in the world of microorganisms.
In rice production, storage on stilts has been a set concept since the beginning.

In the high-floor warehouses, one can often see the ingenious “rat repellent” method.
The great enemy of preservation of harvested food is the rodent infestation.
Therefore, measures were taken as a security measure against such food damage.
As the best measure, they “imported” cats, which had not existed in the natural environment of the archipelago until then, and actively introduced them to Japan.
Cats, which had never existed in the natural environment of the archipelago, were “imported,” actively bred, and adopted as Aエネko (Aedes aegypti).
The concept of fighting militarily against rats can also be confirmed.
The introduction of the cat, so to speak, was a natural consequence of the promotion of rice cultivation.
The stage when rice cultivation landed on the Japanese archipelago was the stage when rice civilization had evolved considerably.
the stage of considerable evolution of rice cultivation civilization, and the actual situation in which various kinds of
The reality of the “sudden” introduction of various agricultural experiences and knowledge comes to the fore.
In conventional Japanese history, the introduction of Buddhism was accompanied by the introduction of cats, which were brought from the continent to prevent rodents from eating the sutras, but this was not the case with the arrival of rice cultivation.
However, the origin of cats in the archipelago was said to be that they were brought from the continent with the arrival of Buddhism
However, the theory that they came to Japan at the same time as the rice culture is gaining strength.
Although I myself had little interest in cats
But, in that sense, the cat as a pet animal is also a new existence in history.
Human society and its evolution is a very deep world.
The history of dogs, cats, and other animal species that have come close to being useful to humans
I had vaguely thought that the history with animal species that approached humans as useful animals, such as dogs and cats, goes back much further than the earliest times.
But the history of present-day humans itself is only 70,000 to 80,000 years old.
It is only logical that there must have been a primordial period, which can be traced as traces.
Cats began to inhabit the archipelago during the agricultural revolution of the Yayoi period.
That would mean that no matter how far back in time we go, it would only be about 3,000 years at the most.
In the context of the 37,000-year history of the title of this blog series, this is very recent.
It is said that the pet was a luxury pet of the aristocracy during the Heian period (794-1192).
Anyway, in the primitive period, they were introduced as “mercenaries” in the war against rats in stilt warehouses like this.
In East Asia, cats were also introduced as “mercenaries” in the war against rats in stilt warehouses.

It is said that cats were imported from the Middle East even in East Asian continental societies.
The relationship between cats and humans has deepened more recently than one might expect.
Canines are thought to be much older, dating back to the Paleolithic and Last Glacial Period, 10,000 years ago.
Feedback from archaeology has led to unexpected new discoveries about the history of our pets.
The history with these pets also brings us unexpected new discoveries through feedback from archaeology.
Perhaps the human preference for dogs and cats will be scientifically and DNA
It is possible that the human preference for dogs and cats will also be scientifically and DNA-based elucidated.

【中国・秦成立以降の東アジア 日本列島37,000年史-29】



紀元前221年に中国大陸では「統一国家・秦」が成立し秦の始皇帝が出現した。
中国大陸では揚子江河口を中心とするコメ生産地域と黄河流域の小麦地域という
2つの基本的食糧生産システムが併存するけれど、
小麦と製粉技術が中国に伝来したのは漢代(紀元前202〜紀元後220年)。
前漢の武帝により西域に派遣された張騫の行路=シルクロード経由で
西方からもたらされた。唐代(618〜907年)になると、華北平原で
小麦栽培が盛んになり特権階級のものだった麺が北方民衆に普及したとされる。
・・・そうすると中国大陸でも「国家」という武力権力は
コメ生産システムの社会普及と並行してきたのだといえる。
秦による中国大陸の統一という事態は、当時の東アジア世界にとっては
相当のインパクトを持って波動していったことは容易に想像できる。
なんといっても日本列島は東アジア世界にとっては「ニューフロンティア」。
たしかに縄文のライフスタイルを固守する先住の人びとは存在したけれど、
九州北部地域から徐々に水田農耕が波及していった段階。
ちょうどアメリカ大陸にヨーロッパからの移住者が進出したのと似たことが
紀元前の時期に「弥生文化」として列島に波及したと思える。
人口規模を支える経済基盤としての優位性は縄文を凌駕していただろう。
この水田農耕地域の「東進」はようやく関東・房総へ到達した段階。
環日本海圏である津軽地域にはこれより以前、紀元前4世紀に到達。
そういうコメ文化受容段階で中国では統一国家が出現したことになる。
秦が統一を果たしてすぐに着手したのが「度量衡の統一」。
国家支配の基本原理が農耕社会の土地や収穫物の計量だったことは
その権力の基盤構造をあきらかにしてくれる。

こうした東アジア的な祭政の基本原理による強大な武力権力への
恐怖というものが容易に列島社会に伝わったことも想像に難くない。
大陸が小国家分立状態であるのと、統一国家であるのとでは
「脅威」の度合いがはるかに違うだろう。
コメ文化によって画一的なライフスタイル、文化圏が作られていくほどに
大陸との国際関係論という意識構造が列島社会で支配的になったことも
これは必然的な成り行きだったことだろう。
この時代以降、神武東征によって古代王権が姿を現す段階まで
国際的な緊張関係として列島社会に迫られていた政治要素だったといえる。
いわゆる「日本史」という事象が徐々に成立していくことになる。・・・


こうした東アジア圏地域での歴史的な「波動」は現代にも
まったく同様に生起し、いわば運命的な「共存関係」が存在している。
海洋国家として世界に開く方向をいち早く選択した日本社会は
幾多の歴史困難を超えて自由社会の価値感を世界と共有しているけれど、
巨大人口の中国社会では現代も困難な局面を迎えている。
あまりにも巨大すぎることが、政治のありようを困難にするのだろうけれど、
独裁が歴史的に一般的な大陸国家で、あからさまな独裁者批判が
朝の雄鶏の叫び声のようにこだましはじめている。
大陸国家での易姓革命ごとの東アジア世界危機も経験してきた日本人として
自然に鋭敏にならざるを得ない。さてどうなっていくのか?

English version⬇

37,000-Year History of the Japanese Archipelago in East Asia since the Establishment of the Qin Dynasty in China – 29
The dictatorship of the “emperor” emerged during the period of acceptance of the rice production system. The long-lasting coexistence in the East Asian world. …

In 221 B.C., the “unified state of Qin” was established on the Chinese continent and Qin Shi Huangdi, the first emperor of China, emerged.
In mainland China, two basic food production systems coexist: the rice production area centered at the mouth of the Yangtze River and the wheat production area in the Yellow River valley.
Two basic food production systems coexist on the Chinese mainland: rice production centered at the mouth of the Yangtze River, and wheat production in the Yellow River valley.
Wheat and milling technology were introduced to China during the Han Dynasty (202 B.C. to 220 A.D.).
It was brought to China from the West via the Silk Road by Zhang An, who was dispatched to the West by Emperor Wu of the previous Han Dynasty.
Zhang Xian was dispatched to the West by Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty. In the Tang dynasty (618-907 A.D.), wheat cultivation flourished in the North China Plain
Wheat cultivation flourished in the Tang Dynasty (618-907) in the North China Plain, and noodles, which were once the preserve of the privileged class, are said to have spread to the people of the north.
In this way, the armed power of the “state” in mainland China was also
This suggests that the military power of the “state” in mainland China was concurrent with the spread of the rice production system in the society.
The unification of the Chinese continent by the Qin Dynasty had a considerable impact on the East Asian world at that time.
It is easy to imagine that the unification of the Chinese continent by the Qin Dynasty had a considerable impact on the East Asian world at that time.
After all, the Japanese archipelago was the “new frontier” for East Asia.
While it is true that there were indigenous peoples who adhered to the Jomon lifestyle, there was also a gradual shift to paddy field agriculture from the northern Kyushu region.
However, the Jomon lifestyle was not yet fully realized in Japan until the paddy field agriculture gradually spread from the northern Kyushu region.
This is similar to the arrival of European immigrants in the Americas.
The Yayoi culture, similar to the European immigration to the Americas, spread to the archipelago in the prehistoric period.
The Yayoi culture would have surpassed the Jomon in terms of its superiority as an economic base to support the size of the population.
This “eastward expansion” of rice paddy farming areas finally reached the Kanto and Boso regions.
The Tsugaru region, which is part of the Japan Sea Rim, was reached earlier, in the 4th century BC.
It was at this stage of rice culture acceptance that a unified state emerged in China.
As soon as the Qin Dynasty achieved unification, it immediately set about “unifying the balance of weights and measures.
The fact that the basic principle of state rule was the weighing of land and harvests in an agrarian society
The fact that the basic principle of state rule was the measurement of land and harvests in an agrarian society reveals the foundational structure of power.

The fear of a strong military power based on such a basic principle of East Asian rituals is easily transmitted to the societies of the archipelago.
It is not difficult to imagine that the fear of powerful military power based on these basic principles of East Asian rituals could be easily transmitted to the island societies.
The degree of “threat” would be much different if the continent were a unified nation than if it were a divided state of small states.
The degree of “threat” would be far different.
The more uniform lifestyles and cultural spheres are created by rice culture
The more uniform lifestyles and cultural spheres were created by the rice culture, the more the structure of consciousness of international relations with the continent became dominant in the archipelago society.
This was an inevitable consequence.
From this period onward, until the ancient royal power emerged through the Jinmu expedition
This was a political element of international tension that was pressing on the society of the archipelago.
The so-called “history of Japan” was gradually established. …

These historical “waves” in the East Asian region
The same historical “waves” in the East Asian region are occurring in the present day, and a fateful “coexistence” exists, so to speak.
Japanese society, which was one of the first to choose to open itself to the world as a maritime nation, shares the values of a free society with the rest of the world.
Japanese society, which chose to open itself to the world as a maritime nation, has overcome many historical difficulties and shares the values of a free society with the rest of the world.
However, the Chinese society, with its huge population, is facing a difficult phase even in the present age.
The sheer size of the population may make politics difficult, but it also makes it more difficult to maintain a free society.
In a continental nation where dictatorships have historically been the norm, overt criticism of dictatorships is
The overt criticism of dictatorships in continental countries, where dictatorships have historically been common, is beginning to echo like the crowing of a morning rooster.
As Japanese who have experienced the East Asian world crisis that followed the Yi Surname Revolution in the continental world
I am naturally sensitive to the situation. What will happen now?

【戦争は農耕社会の基本原理 日本列島37,000年史-28】




産経新聞はその出身者である司馬遼太郎の存在でもわかるように
文化部では日本史への取材の深みが蓄積されていると思う。
その2019年の記事で千葉県佐倉市の国立歴史民俗博物館(歴博)の
「先史時代および古代を扱う常設の第1展示室が、昭和58年の開館以来、
初めてリニューアルされた。」
という趣旨の記事が掲載されていた。遅ればせながら初めて知った。
「2019/3/25 14:00磨井慎吾」。まことに感染症の影響を実感。
〜日本列島に現生人類が出現した37,000年前から日本を国号とする
古代国家が成立した7~8世紀までの約36,000年間に及ぶ。
弥生時代の開始年代が約500年さかのぼるなど、先史時代を中心に
開館以降の36年間で大きく進歩した歴史研究の成果を反映させた、
大規模かつ意欲的な展示刷新。〜というリード。さらに
〜この30数年間、歴博は放射性炭素年代測定法などで多くの成果を生み出した。
(展示は)われわれが学んだ教科書で描かれた歴史像から大きく変わった」
今回の全面リニューアルの背景について、歴博の久留島浩館長はそう語る。〜
まさにわたしが感じていた展示リニューアルの衝撃を語ってくれている。

とくに「弥生」の開始が500年さかのぼる、という点が目を見張る。
展示されている内容は、きのうまで書いてきた内容なのだけれど、
展示から類推していけば、北部九州にやってきた水田耕作は
すでに「社会組織」ごと移動してきたような印象を感じさせてくれる。
高度な労働力組織化があって農業土木工事が行われている痕跡。
在地の縄文の人びとがこうした労役に参加したかどうか。
そしてきのう触れたようにコメ農耕の開始と同時期に「戦死者」も出現する。
農業土木と戦死痕跡には若干のタイムラグがあるようだが、
戦死痕跡の発見確率を考慮すれば、同時だったと考えた方が自然。
環濠集落という「城」の原初形態の出現とも考え合わせると、
弥生の農耕社会は、戦争と権力を揺籃したのだと確定できる。
こうした社会での争闘の普遍化は当然のように武力と権力機構の
過酷な進化・巨大化を促していったことも疑いがない。

そして紀元前3世紀には中国で秦の始皇帝という武力権力が成立する。
それ以前にも「殷」国家が存在しただろうけれど、東アジア世界一帯に
強大な強制力の恐怖が波動していったという意味で
農耕社会の基本原理=戦争という実相が極限的に露わになった。
たぶんそういう意味での「画時代的」な社会変動と認識されたに違いない。
日本の国家権力の草創は、こうした東アジアの戦争権力との相関関係が
もっとも大きな要因だったのだと思える。
成立した強大な武力権力に対してどのように対応すべきか、
このことは列島での人類進化上で、非常に大きなインパクトだっただろう。
農耕社会の進展で人口規模も幾何級数的に拡大して、
支配構造・祭政の要素が喫緊の社会課題になっていった。・・・

English version⬇

War is a Fundamental Principle of Agrarian Society: The 37,000-Year History of the Japanese Archipelago – 28
The development of productive forces also prompted the evolution of ritual power and violent devices to control them, and the societies of the archipelago were forced to respond. …

Sankei Shimbun, as evidenced by its native, Ryotaro Shiba.
I believe that the Culture Department has accumulated a depth of coverage of Japanese history.
In its 2019 article on the National Museum of Japanese History (Rekihaku) in Sakura City, Chiba Prefecture.
“The first permanent exhibition room dealing with prehistory and antiquity has been renovated for the first time since the museum opened in 1983.
“The first renovation since the museum’s opening in 1983.
I learned about it for the first time, albeit belatedly. I knew about it for the first time, though I was late.
I am very much aware of the effects of the infection. I really feel the effects of infectious diseases.
~37,000 years ago when the present humans appeared in the Japanese archipelago, and Japan as the country name.
The period covers about 36,000 years from the 7th to the 8th century when the ancient nation was established.
The museum focuses on prehistoric periods, including the Yayoi Period, which dates back about 500 years to the beginning of the Yayoi Period.
The museum has undergone a major and ambitious exhibition renewal, reflecting the results of historical research that has progressed significantly in the 36 years since the museum opened.
The museum has undergone a major and ambitious renovation of its exhibits, reflecting the results of significant advances in historical research over the 36 years since its opening. 〜The lead of the new exhibition is “The Yayoi Period” (1870-1900). In addition
〜The exhibition will be a major renewal of the museum’s collection, reflecting the great advances made in historical research over the past 36 years since the museum opened, particularly in the field of prehistory.
(The exhibits have changed dramatically from the image of history portrayed in the textbooks we have studied.
Rekihaku Director Hiroshi Kurushima explains the background behind the complete renewal of the museum. 〜The exhibition has been completely renewed.
This is exactly how I felt the impact of the renewal of the exhibition.

The fact that the “Yayoi period” dates back 500 years is particularly striking.
The contents of the exhibition are the same as those I have written about until yesterday.
By analogy with what I have already written yesterday, the paddy field cultivation that came to northern Kyushu
The exhibition gives us the impression that the paddy cultivators who came to Northern Kyushu had already moved with their “social organization” to the region.
There are traces of agricultural and civil engineering works with a high level of labor organization.
We wonder if the local Jomon people participated in this kind of labor.
As I mentioned yesterday, “war dead” appeared at the same time as rice cultivation began.
There seems to be a slight time lag between the agricultural engineering and the traces of war deaths.
However, considering the probability of finding traces of war deaths, it is more natural to assume that they occurred at the same time.
When combined with the appearance of the proto-form of “castles” called moat encircling settlements
We can conclude that the agricultural society of the Yayoi period was the cradle of war and power.
The universalization of warfare in such a society naturally led to the severe evolution and expansion of armed forces and power structures.
The universalization of conflict in such societies naturally led to the severe evolution and massive growth of military power and power structures.

In the 3rd century B.C., the military power of Qin Shi Huangdi was established in China.
Although the Shang state may have existed before then, the fear of a powerful coercive force would have been the wave that would have swept across the entire East Asian world.
In the sense that the fear of a powerful coercive force spread throughout the East Asian world.
The basic principle of agrarian society = the reality of warfare was exposed to the utmost limit.
Perhaps it must have been recognized as an “epochal” social change in this sense.
It seems to me that the most important factor in the pioneering of Japanese state power was its correlation with the war powers of East Asia.
The pioneering of Japanese state power was most likely due to this correlation with the war powers of East Asia.
The question of how to respond to the powerful armed forces that had been established in the East Asian region was a key question in the evolution of the human race in the archipelago.
This was probably the most important factor in the evolution of human beings in the archipelago.
As the size of the population expanded geometrically with the development of agrarian societies, the elements of the ruling structure and rituals became more and more important.
The elements of the ruling structure and ritual government became an urgent social issue. …

【農耕社会=戦争が同時に誕生日本列島37,000年史-27】




紀元前10世紀後半、約3,000年前九州北部で開始された農耕社会。
それとほぼ随伴して紀元前9世紀には「最初の戦死者」が出現する。
水田耕作は計画的に土地を土木工事して田んぼを造作し、
そこにこれも目的的に水利を確保するために「引水」することになる。
最初期から日本列島ではこういう計画的農耕が推進された。
したがって有利な土地を巡って、そして有利な「水利」を巡って
隣接するムラ集団同士は、恒常的な反目関係を生み出す。
縄文社会とは比較できないほどの「人口密度」社会では
こういった緊張関係が加速度的に進展したことは理の当然。
いちばん上の発掘写真は開始された列島社会での戦争の死者の埋葬例。
人類社会普遍の進化として戦争行為というものはある。
食糧の大量生産とその富の蓄積は、同時にそれを略奪しようとする
人類普遍的な欲望を強く刺激した。
生産基盤となる「農業土木」は大量の人員の労働力によって成立するので、
縄文とは比較にならない人口規模社会であり、その土木技術と成員拡大で
戦争の手段と人員「知恵と工夫」も進化したと言えるのだろう。

そのような事態の進展に対応して広域に「環濠」集落が成立する。
ムラ社会は日常の生産活動の集団化によって集村化が自然で
生活共同体としてのムラが発生した。日常生活の竪穴住居群や
生産物を保存する高床倉庫などがそのなかで構築された。
そういうムラ集住環境では、外敵からの襲撃に備えて
共同体の土地の周囲を環濠で囲むようにして、さらにそこで掘られた土を
土塁として高く盛り上げた。頂部にはさらに木組みの柵が構築された。
さらにその周囲には逆茂木や乱杭を設置。初源の「城」だろう。
防衛的戦争準備とするようになっていった。
弥生の初期600年間では金属器・鉄器はまだ普及せず、
人びとは生産作業道具としては木製の鍬やスキなど、そしてコメの採取でも
「石包丁」で収穫していたとされている。
ただ、縄文以来の狩猟具としての弓矢などは当然保持して
戦いの主要武器になっただろうし、石棒から進化した石刀もあった。
後半の600年間以降は開発導入された青銅器・鉄器といった、より鋭利な武器に
進化して行くけれどこの前期段階でもすでに「戦死者」が出ている。

マルクスエンゲルスが想像したような古代社会のありようではなく、
こういう初源的な戦争においても参加者は主体的意思を持っていたと思える。
ムラを守る、という集団的自衛権・自然的な発意からだろう。
いずれにしてもこのような「戦争の起源の発掘」のようなことも
考古事実・人類知として客観的把握できるようになってきたことは
非常に素晴らしいと思う次第。
戦争という人類が随伴した惨禍についても冷静にそれを評価判断することで
それをどう克服できるのかということに繋がっていくだろう。

English version⬇

Agrarian Society and War Simultaneously: The 37,000-Year History of the Japanese Archipelago – 27
The development of agricultural engineering, water use, land conflicts, and other aspects of agriculture were always accompanied by the danger of war. Moat encircling settlements for collective self-defense appeared at the same time. War, war, and war

Late 10th century B.C., about 3,000 years ago, an agrarian society began in northern Kyushu.
agricultural society that began in northern Kyushu about 3,000 years ago in the late 10th century B.C. The “first war dead” appeared in the 9th century B.C.E., almost as a corollary.
Paddy field cultivation was a method of systematically constructing rice paddies by civil engineering.
This was also done for the purpose of “drawing water” in order to secure water supply.
From the beginning, this type of planned agriculture was promoted in the Japanese archipelago.
Therefore, neighboring village groups were competing with each other for favorable lands and for favorable “water resources”.
Adjacent village groups would develop a constant rivalry with each other.
In a “densely populated” society that cannot be compared to Jomon society
It is only natural that these tensions developed at an accelerated pace.
The top photo is an example of the burial of war dead in an archipelagic society initiated in this way.
The act of war is a universal evolution of human society.
The mass production of food and the accumulation of its wealth have at the same time
The mass production of food and the accumulation of its wealth have at the same time strongly stimulated the universal desire of humankind to plunder it.
The “agricultural engineering” that forms the basis of this process is based on the labor of large numbers of people, so the scale of the population is not comparable to that of the Jomon.
The Jomon were a society with a population scale incomparable to that of the Jomon, and with their civil engineering technology and expansion of their members, they were able to
The means of warfare and “wisdom and ingenuity” also evolved with the expansion of civil engineering technology and the number of members.

In response to this development, “moat encircling” settlements were established over a wide area.
Mura society is a natural result of the collectivization of daily production activities, and the emergence of the mura as a community of life.
The mura emerged as a living community. Pit dwellings for daily life and stilted warehouses for storing products were built.
and warehouses on stilts for storing products were constructed.
In such a village environment, the community land was surrounded by a ring
The earth dug up from the moat was raised high as an earthwork.
The earth dug up there was heaped up high as an earthen mound. At the top, a wooden fence was further constructed.
In addition, reverse bushes and random stakes were set up around it.
These were used as defensive preparations for war.
In the first 600 years of the Yayoi period, metal and iron tools were not yet widely used.
People used wooden hoes and skis as tools for production work, and even for rice harvesting
It is believed that people used wooden hoes and skis as tools for production, and stone knives for rice harvesting.
However, they naturally retained bows and arrows, which had been used as hunting tools since the Jomon period, and which were probably the main weapons in battle.
The stone sword was also introduced as an evolution from the stone stick.
In the latter half of the 600 years, the weapons evolved into sharper weapons such as bronzes and irons, which were developed and introduced during this period.
Even in this early stage, however, there were already “deaths in battle.

This is not the way Marx Engels imagined ancient societies to be, but the way they were in the beginning.
Even in these primordial wars, the participants seem to have had a proactive will.
It may be out of a collective self-defense or natural initiative to protect the mullahs.
In any case, this kind of “excavation of the origins of war” is also
I think it is wonderful that we are now able to objectively grasp human knowledge
I think it is wonderful that we can now objectively grasp human knowledge as archaeological facts.
By calmly evaluating and judging the scourge of war that has accompanied mankind, we can connect to the question of how we can overcome it.
how we can overcome them.

【稲作の文化、祈り、農耕祭祀 日本列島37,000年史-26】




さて国立歴史民俗博物館の「稲作」のパネル展示中で
ふと気付き、深くとらわれてしまったイラストが一番上の表現。
稲作というのは実にたくさんの労働を1年間かけて営んでいく営為。
コメという字は八十八であり百姓とはたくさんの労務を表す。
自然の季節変化を「読み取って」苗を植え季節の変化に即して
たくさんの労働を集中させた末にようやく秋の収穫を迎える。
抜けがたく自然の移ろいとともにある経済活動ということになる。
そうすると自然の気候に対して雨乞いをしたりすることが必須になる。
縄文の世でもそういう自然への祈りというものはあったにせよ、
弥生の食糧獲得手段の稲作にとって、自然気候への祈りはより必須化した。
縄文の最大の「生産手段」が人間力であり、そこでの祈りとは
人間の「生と死」への祈りが祭祀の主要なテーマだっと思えるのに対し
弥生ではより自然コントロールの志向性が大きくなったと思われる。
狩猟採集段階の食糧獲得の祈りと、農耕段階の祈りとでは様相が一変し、
農耕の年間作業に並行していったことが容易に想像できる。

稲作文化では、鳥は「稲霊」を乗せて運ぶものと考えられていたという。
イラストは「東海地方の2世紀頃の事例を参考に、鳥形木製品を用いて
穀物の霊である稲霊〜いなだま〜を呼び寄せ、田の神に豊作を祈る
田植え時の「まつり」の様子を想像・復元したもの」という。
直感的には卑弥呼という存在や「八咫烏」を想起させるに十分。
農耕社会の祈りは「まつり」需要として独自のシャーマンを生み出し、
それが年間の季節変化に随順してスケジュール化した。
そういうシャーマン個人が持っている運の力で弥生のムラ社会に
結果恩恵をもたらせば、人びとの尊崇を集めたことは容易に想像できる。
「鬼道をよくする」卑弥呼が現世利益と直結していたのだと思う。
まつりは、スケジュール化されていくことで「まつりごと」化する。
稲作農耕は集団作業であり、指揮命令系統は組織化されていく。
洋の東西を問わず、農耕社会と政治・宗教は一体となって進化していく。
やがてヤマト王権・神武が奈良盆地に「東征」してきたとき
八咫烏が先導していたという神話は、このイラストのような信仰が
ひとびとのこころの基底に伏線として存在したことを暗示するのではないか。
またさらに下のイラストでは収穫のコメを高床倉庫に運ぶと理解できるけれど
その高床倉庫には神社建築に特徴的な「千木」がこっそり描かれている(笑)。
どうも国立歴史民俗博物館のみなさんの「刷り込み」は面白い。

このあたりの狩猟採集社会から農耕社会へのこころの変容について
見える化させたいものだと強く思う。
またこうした「まつり」の実相は稲作農耕のアジアでの出現地である
揚子江河口域ではどうだったのか、文化の比較にも興味を持つ。

English version⬇

Rice Culture, Prayer, and Agricultural Rituals: A 37,000-Year History of the Japanese Islands – 26
Rice cultivation and agriculture necessitated “matsuri” rituals and “goddesses” as priestesses. The wooden bird shape carrying the rice spirit is reminiscent of the yatagarasu (three-legged crow) of the Shinmu expedition. ・・・・・・.

Now, during the “Rice Cultivation” panel exhibition at the National Museum of Japanese History
I suddenly noticed an illustration at the top of the page that caught my attention.
Rice cultivation is an activity that involves a great deal of labor over the course of a year.
The character for “rice” is 88, and the word “peasant” represents a lot of labor.
The farmer “reads” the seasonal changes in nature, plants seedlings, and concentrates his labor in accordance with the changes in the seasons.
After concentrating a great deal of labor in accordance with the seasonal changes, the harvest finally arrives in the fall.
It is an economic activity that is inextricably linked to the changes of nature.
In this way, it is essential to pray for rain in response to the natural climate.
Even in the Jomon period, there were prayers to nature.
However, in the Yayoi period, when rice cultivation was the means of obtaining food, praying to the natural climate became even more essential.
The Jomon’s greatest “means of production” was human power, and prayer in this context meant
Prayer for human “life and death” seems to have been the main theme of rituals, whereas in the Yayoi period
In the Yayoi period, however, the emphasis seems to have been more oriented toward control of nature.
Prayers for the acquisition of food during the hunter-gatherer stage and prayers during the agricultural stage seem to have changed drastically, with the latter being more in line with the annual work of agriculture.
It is easy to imagine a parallel to the annual work of agriculture.

In rice culture, birds were thought to be carriers of “rice spirits.
The illustration is “based on examples from the Tokai region around the 2nd century, using bird-shaped wooden objects.
The “festival” at the time of rice planting to call the “rice spirit” (Inadama), the spirit of grain, and pray to the god of rice fields for a good harvest.
The illustration is said to be an imaginative reconstruction of a “festival” held at the time of rice planting.
Intuitively, it is enough to remind us of the existence of Himiko or “Yatagarasu,” the three-legged crow.
Prayer in an agrarian society created its own shaman as a “matsuri” demand.
This became a schedule that followed the seasonal changes of the year.
If the power of luck possessed by these individual shamans could bring benefits to the Yayoi village society, it would be possible for the shamans to become a part of the community.
It is easy to imagine that such individual shamans would have been revered by the people of the Yayoi period if they brought benefits to the village society.
I believe that Himiko, who “makes the path of demons better,” was directly connected to the benefits of the present world.
Matsuri becomes a “festival event” as it becomes scheduled.
Rice cultivation is a collective work, and the chain of command becomes organized.
Regardless of whether in the East or the West, agricultural societies, politics, and religion evolved in unison.
Eventually, when the Yamato royal authority, Jinmu, came to the Nara Basin on his “eastern expedition,” he was led by Yatagarasu.
The myth of Yatagarasu leading the way is an illustration of the belief that
The myth that Yatagarasu led the way during the Yamato Kingdom’s “eastward conquest” of the Nara Basin may suggest that beliefs like those in this illustration existed as foreshadowing in the hearts of the people.
In the illustration below, the rice harvest is carried to a warehouse on stilts.
In the illustration below, we can understand that the rice harvest is carried to a warehouse on stilts, but the warehouse on stilts secretly depicts “Senki,” which is characteristic of shrine architecture (laugh).
Thank you, the “imprint” of the folks at the National Museum of Japanese History is interesting.

I would like to visualize the mental transformation from a hunter-gatherer society to an agrarian society in this area.
I strongly wish to visualize the mental transformation from a hunter-gatherer society to an agrarian society.
I would also like to ask how the reality of these “festivals” is reflected in the Yangtze River estuary, where rice cultivation and agriculture emerged in Asia.
I am also interested in comparing the culture of the Yangtze River estuary, the place where rice farming emerged in Asia.

【水田農耕/東アジア世界の交流 日本列島37,000年史-25】


日本列島での人類史のなかで水田農耕は決定的な社会形成要因。
縄文段階では最大でも約20万人程度の人口規模だったと推定されるものが、
大量の食糧を生産し大きな人口を維持できることは革命的だっただろう。
紀元前10世紀、いまから3,000年前頃に北九州地域にやってきて以降、
一粒万倍の事跡は現実に日本列島での発展史で証明されている。
人口規模ではこの3000年間におよそ20万人が1億2,000万人になったのだから
実に600倍の人口を養うほどの主食の位置を占めてきたことになる。
この列島でその後起こった「歴史」とはコメが背景だったといえる。
それほどに決定的な出来事であったに違いない。
あまりにも巨大な出来事なのでいまは想像力も湧き上がりにくいけれど
初源に於いてはまさに巨大な革命力を持ったことだっただろう。
最新研究では稲作起源は中国の長江流域とされ長江下流の河姆渡遺跡から、
約7,000年前の炭化米や稲作に使われたと思われる道具が出土している。
そこからアジア世界全域に広がっていったとされるけれど
気候条件的に日本列島の高温多湿気候は最適だったのか、
コメの無限発展地域として列島社会は旺盛に開発されていった。
さながらコメ革命が日本列島を覆いつくしていった。
縄文の世で泰平の夢に生きてきた人びとにとって
この大変革がどのように受容されていったのか、
たぶん明治の開国インパクトとも比較不能なほどの根源的な革命だと思う。
また逆に、日本という社会はそういう変動に対して従順で
受容することについては非常に柔軟な民族性を持っているのだと思う。
さらに言えば、その変化を「変える」ことも非常にヘタな国民性なのかも。


福岡県・板付遺跡での絵図では、3000年前ころの「水利」の様子。
このような水田整地土木を行い、そこに水を引く灌漑土木。
揚子江河口地域での水稲栽培開始からの知恵と工夫が
この列島に導入された段階ではすでに4,000年程度の知見蓄積があって
それに即した先端的技術によって導入されたと思われる。
このとき縄文の世の人びととの社会関係がどうであったか。
たぶん低湿地のような「葦原の中」のような土地に着目して
水田を開拓する様子を見ていて、縄文伝統の暮らしを営んでいた人びとは
どのようにこうした事態を認識していたのか、興味深い。
縄文期では活発な地域間交流が船を利用して行われていたので
そういう交流で朝鮮半島地域から情報と技術が導入されたのは自然な理解。
さまざまな交流形態のひとつとして半島・大陸からの集団移住もあった可能性。
3番目の図は炭素14年代法によるイネの列島地域波及のグラフ。
九州北部から瀬戸内地域、近畿、伊勢湾地域、東北北部、中部関東と
その列島地域への漸進ぶりがきれいに表現されている。

English version⬇

Paddy Field Farming / East Asian World Interaction: 37,000 Years of Japanese Archipelago History-25
Traces of advanced agricultural engineering can be seen in the northern part of Kyushu in the early period. Was the entire advanced rice production technology system introduced to the archipelago? The history of agriculture in Japan and the East Asia

Paddy field agriculture has been a decisive factor in the social formation of the Japanese archipelago throughout human history.
The Jomon period is estimated to have had a population of about 200,000 people.
The ability to produce large amounts of food and sustain a large population would have been revolutionary.
Since its arrival in the Kitakyushu region in the 10th century B.C., around 3,000 years ago, the Japanese people have been able to produce and sustain a large population.
The history of the development of the Japanese archipelago has proven that the “one grain, ten thousand times as large” concept is in fact a reality.
In terms of population, the number of people has increased from 200,000 to 120 million over the past 3,000 years.
This means that the staple food has occupied a position that can feed a population 600 times larger than before.
The “history” that followed in this archipelago can be said to have had rice as its backdrop.
It must have been such a decisive event.
It was so huge that it is hard to imagine now.
But at its origin, it must have had a revolutionary power.
According to the latest research, rice cultivation originated in China’s Yangtze River basin, and the remains of the Samudu site on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River have yielded evidence of charcoal production dating back approximately 7,000 years.
Carbonized rice and tools believed to have been used for rice cultivation have been excavated from the ruins at the Kawamudu site on the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, which date back approximately 7,000 years.
From there, it is believed to have spread throughout the Asian world.
The hot and humid climate of the Japanese archipelago may have been optimal for rice cultivation, but it is also believed to have spread throughout Asia and the rest of the world.
The Japanese archipelago society was vigorously developed as a region of unlimited rice development.
A rice revolution swept over the Japanese archipelago.
For those who had lived the dream of peace in the Jomon era
How was this revolution received by the people who had lived the dream of peace in the Jomon period?
I think it was a revolution so fundamental that it probably cannot be compared to the impact of the opening of Japan to the outside world in the Meiji era.
On the other hand, Japanese society has been very flexible in accepting such changes.
I think, on the other hand, Japanese society has a very flexible ethnicity in terms of accepting such changes.
Furthermore, Japan may not be very good at “changing” such changes.

A drawing at the Itazuke site, Fukuoka Prefecture, shows “water use” around 3,000 years ago.
Irrigation civil engineering to draw water to such paddy field preparation civil engineering.
The wisdom and ingenuity from the start of paddy rice cultivation in the Yangtze River estuary area
The knowledge accumulated over 4,000 years has already been accumulated at the stage when it was introduced to this archipelago.
It is thought that the technology was introduced in line with this knowledge.
What was the social relationship with the Jomon people at this time?
Perhaps they focused on the land “in the reed field” like low marshland
How did the people of the Jomon tradition of living perceive this situation?
It is interesting to see how they perceived these situations.
During the Jomon period, active inter-regional exchanges took place by ship, so it is interesting to see how people who lived a traditional Jomon lifestyle would have perceived this situation.
It is natural that information and technology were introduced from the Korean peninsula through such exchanges.
It is possible that migration from the peninsula and continent was one of the various forms of exchange.
The third figure is a graph of rice spreading across the archipelago based on carbon-14 dating.
The chart shows the gradual spread of rice from northern Kyushu to the Setouchi area, Kinki area, Ise Bay area, northern Tohoku area, central Kanto area, and so on.
The gradual progression of rice to the archipelagic regions is beautifully expressed in this graph.

【農耕社会化と極東の国際関係 日本列島37,000年史-24】




さて全13回に渡った「縄文シリーズ」が終了してしまった・・・。
自分でも国立歴史民俗博物館展示の感動を追体験するように
旧石器〜縄文には強く魂を揺さぶられていました。
そして心のどこかでは日本列島人はこのまま弥生に行かなければいいのに、
というような心情があふれてくるのを止められない(笑)。

それは縄文が土地本来の「豊かさ」を見せていたことへの愛惜なのか、
弥生後の歴史過程が東アジア世界との強い関係から規定されたことへの
言いようのない「おぞましさ」からかも知れない。
しかし農耕という生産手段は多数人口を養うことが可能になり
そして権力と国家があからさまに出現してくること。
その記録ツールとして文字・言語発展が同時並行するという人類の進展は、
なにより現実にわたしたちの列島社会に生起したことであり
わたしたちは自覚的か無自覚的かは別にして「受け入れる」しかない。
縄文の社会発展の必然的な結果としての国際関係性発展でもある。
人類社会の推移のなかで中国大陸に多くの人びとが住み続け
もっとも日本列島に近い人類の主要な文明圏であることは間違いがない。
半島の人びとも、わたしたち列島人もこの影響からは逃れようがない。
まず文字からしてわたしたちは受容した。
人間社会の「概念」というものを抽象化する手段を受け取ったのだ。
その基礎となったのが農耕の受容であったことは疑いようがない。
それは農耕文明が持つ根深いところの必然性なのだろうと思う。
一粒万倍、という四字熟語があるけれど、
このことは米作によって文字通り実現される奇跡を列島人は体験した。
また、米作には本家の中国南部地域よりもこの列島の方が適してもいた。
半島地域ではイマイチ発展しなかったけれど列島ではまさに最適だった。
パネル展示では紀元前5000年ころがアジアでの米作の出現期とされている。
それが紀元前800-700年頃に北九州で米作と連動する弥生土器が出現し、
紀元前700〜600年頃には近畿や伊勢湾地域まで広がった。

農耕社会がいちはやく出現した中国大陸では「国家」が出現する。
支配と被支配という社会の階層化、階級差別というものが
農耕文明には必然的なものだということがわかる。
また農耕の結果としての生産物は「長期保存可能」であって
高床式の倉庫群に仕舞い込まれるようになった。
それは「富の明確化」でもあって「奪いたい」欲求を引き起こすものでもあった。
「討ちて取るべし」という戦争の論理を人類に強烈に刷り込んだ。
文字の開発もこの富を計量化する必然の手段だったといえる。
この文明と同時並行する戦争の抑止について
人類は最終的な知恵として「民主主義」を創出するけれど、
21世紀の現代に至ってもまだ戦争の惨禍は拡大し人類は苦しみ続けている。
さて農耕社会はこの永き負の遺産を克服可能か?

English version⬇

[Agricultural Socialization and International Relations in the Far East: The 37,000-Year History of the Japanese Archipelago – 24]
Jomon shifted to Yayoi society with the development of agriculture. Power and warfare become more active and bloody. Writing was developed and accepted as a means of recording production. …

Well, the 13-part “Jomon Series” has come to an end…
As I myself relive the excitement of the National Museum of Japanese History exhibit
Paleolithic – Jomon strongly shook my soul.
And somewhere in my heart, I wished the people of the Japanese archipelago had not gone all the way to the Yayoi period
I can’t stop the feeling of “I wish the people of the Japanese archipelago had not gone to the Yayoi period” from overflowing in my heart (laugh).

Is it a regret for the Jomon’s original “abundance” of the land, or is it a desire for the Yayoi to be able to live in the Yayoi period?
or that the post-Yayoi historical process was defined by a strong relationship with the East Asian world?
or perhaps it is the inexpressible “horror” of the fact that the post-Yayoi historical process was defined by a strong relationship with the East Asian world.
But agriculture, the means of production, made it possible to feed a large population, and power and the state were overtly established.
The development of writing and language as a tool to record this process.
The simultaneous development of writing and language as a tool for recording this development is a development of mankind that is more real than anything else.
This is, above all, what has actually occurred in our archipelagic society.
We have no choice but to “accept” it, whether consciously or unconsciously.
The development of relationships is an inevitable consequence of the social development of the Jomon period.
In the transition of human society, many people continued to live on the Chinese mainland
There is no doubt that the Chinese mainland has been the main sphere of human civilization closest to the Japanese archipelago.
Neither the people of the peninsula nor we islanders can escape this influence.
First of all, we have accepted the written word.
We received a means of abstracting the “concepts” of human society.
There is no doubt that the foundation for this was the acceptance of agriculture.
I believe that this is a deep-seated necessity of agricultural civilization.
There is a four-letter idiom that says, “One grain multiplies ten thousand times.
The people of the archipelago experienced the miracle of having this literally realized through rice cultivation.
The archipelago was also more suitable for rice cultivation than the original region of southern China.
The peninsula region did not develop well, but the archipelago was the perfect place for rice cultivation.
The panel exhibition shows the emergence of rice cultivation in Asia around 5000 B.C., which was followed by the emergence of rice cultivation in the 800-700 B.C. period.
This was followed by the appearance of Yayoi earthenware in conjunction with rice cultivation in Kitakyushu around 800-700 B.C., and then the appearance of Yayoi earthenware in the vicinity of 700-600 B.C.
By 700-600 B.C., Yayoi earthenware spread to the Kinki region and the Ise Bay area.

On the Chinese continent, where agricultural society emerged early, the “state” emerged.
The social stratification of domination and subjugation, and class discrimination
The production that resulted from agriculture was the result of the production of goods and services.
The products of agriculture could be stored for long periods of time.
and stored in warehouses on stilts.
This was both a “clarification of wealth” and a desire to “take.
The logic of war, “fight to take,” was strongly imprinted on mankind.
The development of writing was also an inevitable means of quantifying this wealth.
The deterrence of war that runs concurrently with this civilization
Humanity created “democracy” as its final wisdom, but even today, in the 21st century
Even today, in the 21st century, the scourge of war continues to spread and human beings continue to suffer.
Can an agrarian society overcome this long-standing negative legacy?

【縄文の家「性能とデザイン」 日本列島37,000年史-23】




縄文社会の実相を探る国立歴史民俗博物館の探究はたいへん刺激的。
炭素年代法などの考古探究ドリルの切っ先鋭く、文字記録以前の闇を開いて行く。
従来の住宅研究のレベルを超えて興味深い地点に達している。
「各地の住居を復元する」と題された刺激的パネル展示。
わたしのライフワークテーマとぴったり重なる。
このテーマの前振りとして「各地の集落と社会」という解説が以下。
〜集落や墓地のあり方は各地に於いて異なっていた。たとえば中国地方では
全時期を通じて集落も墓域も小規模であるが、中期の関東地方では大規模なものが
形成されており、その社会のあり方も相互に大きく異なっていたと思われる。〜
縄文期の列島での人口分布では関東以北地域が優勢で西日本は
比較的国土利用が活発ではなかったとされている。
温暖化の進展で、むしろ現在の寒冷地域のほうが有利だったのか、
あるいは列島に住み着いた人類はどちらかといえば北東アジアから
マンモスを追って到着した人びとの末裔が主流を形成していたことを表すのか、
最近の日本人のDNA解析では後者の見方に傾きつつあるようだけれど、
これは今後の研究の成果を待たねばならない。期待したい。

で、本題の縄文期に利用され建築された住居の復元について。
〜当時の居住施設にはもっともポピュラーな
・竪穴住居 以外にも
・平地式住居(掘立柱建物)
・洞窟・岩陰住居(広島県・帝釈名越岩陰遺跡)
・屋内に石を敷き詰めたもの(神奈川県・子易大坪遺跡)
・壁で屋根を支えるもの(山形県押出遺跡)
・塀のように板材を巡らせるもの(岩手県・八天遺跡)〜
など、デザイン的にも構造的にも多様なスタイルが存在したとされる。
その地域での環境に整合的に順応し、そして建築を構成する素材も
その地域性を反映して選択されたことがわかる。
わたし的には「板材」を使っている八天遺跡に深く興味を持つ。
本当に板材なのか、確かだとすれば石斧で木材を割ったのか?
奇跡的工法開発と思えるが、これは自然発展かを確認したい。
また、子易大坪遺跡の床面に敷き込まれた石材にも深く驚く。
竪穴にプラスして床面を敷石とするのは「蓄熱性能」への着眼とも思える。
言うまでもなく年中安定した室内気候環境を獲得するのには合目的的。
ほぼ中央部からやや入口側に配置された「囲炉裏場」痕跡にも
そうした工夫を見ることができるだろう。
縄文の人びとも自然な知恵と工夫で、合理的で多彩な住宅に取り組んでいた。
Replan誌では「性能とデザイン」というスローガンを20年近く、
日本の住宅情報シーンで最初に打ち出したと思っているけれど
はるかな先人の取り組みに深く畏敬の念を抱かせられる。・・・

また、縄文時代の家族像・家屋での生活ぶりにも探究のメスが入れられている。
床面積から推定して5-7人程度が住んだとみられるひとつの住居には
核家族が居住し、周辺の複数の住居に3世代程度の家族集団が
まとまっていたと推定されるという。
きのう触れた、家族が集約的に埋葬された墓域(埋葬小群)の規模とも整合的。

縄文の人びとの住へのこだわり、
その工夫ぶりになんとも言えないシンパシー、ハンパない(笑)。

English version⬇

Jomon House “Performance and Design” 37,000 Years of the Japanese Archipelago – 23
Replan magazine describes the orientation of highly insulated houses as “performance and design. We deeply sympathize with the wisdom and ingenuity of our far Jomon predecessors. …

The National Museum of Japanese History’s exploration of the realities of Jomon society is very exciting.
The sharp edge of archaeological exploration drills, such as carbon dating, open up the darkness before the written record.
It has reached an interesting point beyond the level of conventional housing research.
A stimulating panel exhibit titled “Reconstructing Dwellings Around the World.
The theme of the exhibition coincides perfectly with my own life’s work.
The following commentary, “Settlements and Societies around the World,” is a prelude to this theme.
〜The way of settlements and cemeteries differed from place to place. For example, in the Chugoku region
In the Chugoku region, for example, settlements and cemeteries were small throughout the entire period, but in the Kanto region during the middle period, large-scale settlements were formed.
The social patterns of these regions were also very different from each other. ~.
In the Jomon period, population distribution in the archipelago was dominated by the area north of the Kanto region, while western Japan was relatively inactive in terms of land use, and the area north of the Kanto region was relatively small.
The Jomon period population distribution in the archipelago during the Jomon period was dominated by the Kanto region and northward, and western Japan was relatively inactive in land use.
With the advance of global warming, was the present cold region more advantageous?
Or perhaps the humans who settled in the archipelago came from northeast Asia, following the mammoths.
or that the human population that settled in the archipelago was mainly descended from people who arrived after the mammoths from Northeast Asia?
Recent DNA analysis of the Japanese population seems to be leaning toward the latter view.
We will have to wait for the results of future research. We must wait for the results of future research.

Now, to the main topic, the reconstruction of dwellings used and built during the Jomon period.
〜The most popular type of dwelling at that time was the pit dwelling.
In addition to pit dwellings
Plain dwellings (hottate-bashira)
Cave and rock dwellings (Teishaku-Nagoshi Iwa-in Site, Hiroshima Prefecture)
Stone-paved dwellings (Kanagawa Prefecture, Ziye Otsubo Site)
Roof supported by walls (Yamagata Prefecture, Extrusion Site)
A wall supporting a roof (Extrusion Site, Yamagata Prefecture), and a fence with planks (Yaten Site, Iwate Prefecture).
A variety of styles are said to have existed, both in terms of design and structure.
The materials used to construct the architecture were selected to reflect the local characteristics of the area.
The materials used to construct the buildings were selected to reflect the local characteristics of the region.
I am deeply interested in the Yaten site where “wooden planks” are used.
Is it really planks, and if so, were the planks split with a stone axe?
This seems to be a miraculous development of a construction method, but I would like to confirm whether this is a natural development.
I am also deeply surprised by the stone material laid on the floor of the Ziye Otsubo site.
The use of paving stones for the floor surface in addition to the pit seems to be an attempt to achieve “heat storage performance.
Needless to say, it is a purposeful way to obtain a stable indoor climatic environment throughout the year.
The traces of the “sunken hearth” located from the center of the building to the entrance can also be seen.
The Jomon people also had a natural wisdom.
The Jomon people also used their natural wisdom and ingenuity to create rational and versatile housing.
Replan magazine has been carrying the slogan “Performance and Design” for nearly 20 years.
I believe we were the first to launch the slogan “Performance and Design” in the Japanese housing information scene, but
I am in deep awe of the efforts of those who came before us. …

The Jomon family and the way of life in a house are also explored.
A single dwelling, which is estimated to have housed 5-7 people based on its floor space, was occupied by a nuclear family.
A nuclear family lived in one dwelling, which is estimated to have housed 5-7 people based on the floor space, and a family group of about 3 generations lived together in several surrounding dwellings.
The family is estimated to have been clustered in several surrounding dwellings.
This is consistent with the scale of the burial sites (burial sub-groups) where families were buried together, as mentioned yesterday.

The Jomon people’s commitment to housing and their ingenuity are indescribable.
I can’t help but feel an indescribable sympathy for the ingenuity of the Jomon people (laugh).

【交易は経済と遺伝的安全を保障 日本列島37,000年史-22】




旧石器時代の「移動・遊動」というライフスタイルから縄文定住に移行すると
人間活動はより地域的範囲に留まるのかと錯覚するけれど、
むしろ広域範囲間での移動の拡大・交易発展の実相が浮かんでくる。

上の図は日本列島各地域間のネットワークを図示。
北海道白滝の黒曜石はサハリンやアムール川河口域と交易されたし
同時に青森県深浦・秋田県男鹿・山形県月山地域でも発掘される。
伊豆沖合の神津島出土の黒曜石は、本州中部の和田峠など
関東から本州中部地域で発見されてきている。
八丈島の倉輪遺跡や島嶼部の遺跡からは、本州の遺跡と深く関わる
土器・装身具などが出土していて日常的に「海を渡っていた」ことがわかる。
旧石器の頃には狩猟採集の範囲に留まっていた移動が活発に拡大し
定期的交易の発展ぶりがさながら現代人の出張移動にも似てくる。
現代では飛行機での移動であるものが、海流を見計らった丸木舟移動。
手段は違えど、目的性に於いてはまったく同様だと思える。
さらに「外から来た人びと」というパネルではムラ間の移住痕跡も。
〜人の体内には微量のストロンチウム同位体が存在する。これは主に
食物によって体内に取り込まれ、永久歯には「生まれ育った」土地の痕跡が
固定されるのだという。そこからムラ内部で「移住者」を判別できる。〜
表を見ると男女とも3割以上程度の割合で見ることができる。
この割合というのは現代と比較しても大差ないのではないか。
移住の経緯はたぶん結婚が主要な要因ではないかと想像できる。
ムラ集落内部だけの婚姻ではやがて遺伝的困難を引き起こすという
DNAレベルでの「知恵」が働いて、やや離れた地域間での婚姻が
通常化した、というように見なしうるだろう。
余談だけれどわたしの父は、交易活動を幅広く行って
やや遠隔の地域に出張活動してそこで母に「ひとめぼれ」したという(笑)。
昭和の時代に起こったことが、縄文の世でも普遍的にあったと思える。

このような活発な「交易」による相互発展はさらに目的的な
地域発展経済動機を生んでいく流れになることは理の当然。
旧石器以来の産業基盤ともいえる黒曜石などの希少石材を求めて
地下資源を探索したり、さらに進んで「特産品」制作にも発展した。
ヒスイ製品や磨製石斧、貝輪や干し貝、塩、アスファルトなどを生産した。
お互いの社会が豊かに発展するための相互交流手段として
経済が基本に据えられて同時に婚姻などにも繋がっていく。
地域間交流ということが遺伝的安全をも保障して人間社会を発展させていった。
縄文の1万年を超える営為の中で日本社会の原型が作られていった。
ひとつひとつの事象の科学的解析が大いに進んで、
人間社会発展の具体的なイメージが膨らんでくる。・・・

English version⬇

Trade Guarantees Economic and Genetic Security: The 37,000-Year History of the Japanese Islands – 22
Exchange and trade ensured the mutual development of village societies, and at the same time, increased human interaction induced intermarriage and guaranteed genetic security. The exchange and trade guaranteed the mutual development of village societies.

The shift from the Paleolithic lifestyle of “movement and mobility” to Jomon settlement gives the illusion that human activities are more localized.
one would think that human activities would have remained within a more localized area.
The figure above illustrates the network between the various regions of the Japanese archipelago.

The figure above illustrates the network among the regions of the Japanese archipelago.
Obsidian from Shirataki, Hokkaido, was traded with Sakhalin and the Amur River estuary.
At the same time, obsidian was excavated in Fukaura, Aomori Prefecture; Oga, Akita Prefecture; and Tsukiyama, Yamagata Prefecture.
Obsidian excavated from Kozushima Island, off the coast of Izu, is found in the Wadatoge area in central Honshu.
It has been discovered in the Kanto to central Honshu area.
The Kurawa site on Hachijojima and other sites on the islands are deeply related to those on Honshu.
The excavation of earthenware and accessories at the Kurawa site on Hachijojima and other sites on the islands indicate that the people “crossed the sea” on a daily basis.
In the Paleolithic period, migration was limited to hunting and gathering, but it is now actively expanding, and the development of regular trade is evident.
The development of regular trade resembles the business travel of modern humans.
What is done by airplanes in the modern age is done by marines traveling by wooden boats that follow the currents of the sea.
Although the means of travel is different, the purpose of travel seems to be exactly the same.
In addition, the panel “People from Outside” also shows traces of migration between villages.
〜The panel also showed traces of inter-mural migration. This is mainly
isotopes are taken into the body mainly by food, and the traces of the “native” land are fixed in the permanent teeth.
The permanent teeth are fixed with traces of the land where they were “born and raised”. From there, it is possible to identify “migrants” inside the mura. ~.
The table shows that more than 30% of both men and women can be seen.
This percentage is not much different from that of today.
We can imagine that marriage is probably the main reason for migration.
The “wisdom” at the DNA level tells us that intermarriage only within the Mula community will eventually cause genetic difficulties.
DNA-level “wisdom” that intermarriage only within a mura village would eventually cause genetic difficulties.
This may be seen as a “wisdom” at the DNA level that intermarriage only within a mura community would eventually cause genetic difficulties.
As a side note, my father was a trader who traveled extensively to
He traveled to a somewhat remote area and fell in love with my mother there (laugh).
What happened in the Showa era seems to have been universal in the Jomon era.

Mutual development through such active “trade” will further create a flow of purposeful
It is only natural that the mutual development through such active “trade” would give birth to more purposeful economic motives for regional development.
The search for rare stones such as obsidian, which has been the foundation of industry since the Paleolithic period, led to the search for underground resources and the creation of “local products.
The search for underground resources for rare stones such as obsidian, which has been the foundation of industry since the Paleolithic period, and the production of “local specialties” developed further.
They produced jade products, polished stone axes, shell rings, dried shells, salt, asphalt, etc.
As a means of mutual exchange for the enrichment and development of each other’s societies
The economy became the basic means of interaction for the development and enrichment of each other’s societies, and this led to intermarriage and other forms of interchange.
Interregional exchange also ensured genetic security and promoted the development of human society.
The prototype of Japanese society was created during the Jomon period of more than 10,000 years of activity.
Scientific analysis of each event has progressed greatly, and a concrete image of the development of human society has expanded.
The more scientific analysis of each event, the more concrete the image of the development of human society will become. The development of human society is now in the process of being realized.

【人類史「一夫一婦制と家族・家」 日本列島37,000年史-21】




人類というのはごく初期から「一夫一婦」制だったという説が強い。
分子古生物学者・更科功氏「人類は一夫一婦制に向いていないのか」より
以下はその要旨。
〜環境の乾燥化によって森林が縮小した。そのためある類人猿グループは、
木がまばらにしか生えていない疎林に住まざるを得なくなった。
疎林には食料が少ないので食料を探すため広い範囲を歩き回らなくてはならない。
それはとくに子育てをしているメスにとっては大問題だ。
食料が子の分まで必要なのに子連れでは食料を探し回ることが難しいからだ。
しかし、もしメスや子に(専用に)食料を運んでくれるオスがいれば、
この問題は解決する。子はちゃんと食事ができてすくすくと育つだろう。・・・
一夫一婦制であればどれが自分の子かオスにすぐにわかる。
自分の子に食料を運んでこれるので、他人の子より自分の子がすくすくと育つ。
育った子は自分に似ているので、メスや子に食料を運ぶオスに育つ可能性が高い。
こうして一夫一婦制の場合は食料を運ぶオスが進化することになる。
直立二足歩行をすれば、手でものを運ぶのに便利だろう。一夫一婦制になれば、
オス同士の争いが減るので犬歯が小さくなる。ヒトには発情期がないので
交尾できるメスとオスの数がほぼ同じになり、やはりオス同士の争いが減る。
こういう状況証拠がいくつもあって類人猿から分かれて人類が進化した理由を
説明する説として現在もっとも有力な説となっている。〜引用終わり。

人類史ではこの説が主流となっていることを知ってから、
「家と人間」というわたしのライフワークテーマに強いインパクト。
巨視的な視点からも「家と家族」というポイントに集中できた。
というか、人類進化と家づくりが直接結びつくことに深く気付かされた。
今回の国立歴史民俗博物館展示の大変革で先史、旧石器・縄文期が
最近の研究成果を反映して大いに充実したなかで、このテーマについても
興味深い展示構成が発見された。それが上の展示パネル群。
墓というのは死後の世界の住み処とも言えるだろうけれど、
とくに3番目のパネル展示では特定の遺伝傾向「前頭縫合」に着目して
特定の墓域での出現確率が500万分の1であることを証していた。
「同一の家系による墓域」と科学的・確率論的に証明されたというのだ。
現代人も死後にも家という概念を永続する墓制を取っている。
まことに科学研究の進歩は喜ばしい。

家族という概念は人類が進化していく最初期からのものであり、
それがあってはじめて進化があり得たと見なせることがら。
その場としての住宅には気付かないような文化痕跡が残っているのだろう。
家を見つめながら人間を見つめるということの原点について
こういう縄文のひとびととも対話が可能になっていく。

English version⬇

Human History “Monogamy and Family/Home” 37,000 Years of Japanese Archipelago – 21
Monogamy as a choice of monogamy from the beginning of human history, which is now known to the public. The family form of the Jomon period as seen in the tombs. Family and Home

It is strongly believed that human beings have been monogamous from the very beginning.
Isao Sarashina, molecular paleontologist Is humanity unfit for monogamy
The following is a summary.
~The aridification of the environment has led to the shrinkage of forests. As a result, a group of apes were forced to live in sparse forests with only a few trees.
have been forced to live in sparsely forested areas where trees grow only sparsely.
Because food is scarce in sparse forests, they have to roam large areas in search of food.
This is a big problem, especially for females raising their young.
It is difficult for a female to search for food with her young when she needs food for her offspring as well.
However, if there is a male who can bring food (exclusively) to the female and her young
This problem is solved. The cubs would be well fed and grow up nicely. …
If monogamy is used, the male will know immediately which of his offspring is his.
Since he can bring food to his own offspring, his own offspring will grow up better than the offspring of others.
Since his own offspring will resemble him, they are more likely to grow up to be males that will bring food to the females and their offspring.
Thus, in the case of monogamy, a male carrying food will evolve.
If they walk upright and bipedal, it would be convenient for them to carry things by hand. Monogamy would
There would be less fighting between males, so the canines would be smaller. Since humans do not have a mating season
The number of females and males that can mate would be about the same, which would also reduce the number of male-male conflicts.
This circumstantial evidence is currently the most promising theory to explain why humans evolved from apes.
This is currently the most popular theory to explain why humans evolved by splitting off from apes. 〜End of quote.

After learning that this theory has become the dominant theory in human history
I have been strongly influenced by this theory in my life’s work, “House and Human Beings”.
From a macroscopic point of view, I was able to concentrate on the point of “home and family.
Or rather, I was deeply aware of the direct connection between human evolution and house building.
The prehistory, Paleolithic and Jomon periods in the National Museum of Japanese History exhibition underwent a major transformation this time.
The National Museum of Japanese History has been greatly enriched by the recent research results on prehistory, Paleolithic and Jomon period.
An interesting exhibition structure was found on this theme. The above panels are the most interesting ones.
The third panel in particular shows the tombs of certain geneticists.
The third panel in particular focuses on a specific genetic tendency
The third panel in particular focused on a particular genetic tendency and showed that the probability of its occurrence in a particular grave site was 1 in 5 million.
It was scientifically and probabilistically proven that the graves were of the same family lineage.
Modern humans also have a grave system that perpetuates the concept of family even after death.
This is truly a welcome advancement in scientific research.

The concept of family has existed since the beginning of human evolution.
It is only with the family that we can see that evolution was possible.
The house, as a place to live, probably retains traces of culture that we do not notice.
I would like to discuss the starting point of looking at people while looking at their homes.
It will be possible to have a dialogue with these Jomon people.